ATOM® Dosimetry Verification Phantoms

Model 701-706

CIRS ATOM ® phantoms are a full line of anthropomorphic, cross sectional dosimetry phantoms designed to investigate organ dose, whole body effective dose as well as verification of delivery of therapeutic radiation doses.

ATOM is the only line of dosimetry phantoms to range in sizes from newborn to adult. Six models are available: newborn, 1-year, 5-year and 10-year old pediatric phantoms as well as adult male and female phantoms.

Each phantom is sectional in design with traditional 25 mm thick sections. The sectional surfaces are extremely flat and smooth and do not require any special coatings or treatment. This results in minimal interfaces between the slabs when viewed in a scout or projection X-ray. The ATOM line also differs from other dosimetry phantoms by providing optimized TLD locations specific to 21 inner organs.

Tissue-equivalent epoxy resins are used in all aspects of the phantom. CIRS technology offers superior tissue simulation Dosimetry Verification Phantoms by covering a wider range of energy levels from diagnostic to therapeutic. In addition, all bones are homogeneous and are formulated to represent age appropriate, average bone composition. CIRS bone formulations offer distinct advantages over natural skeletons and other types of simulated bone.

  • Phantom models cover a wide range of patient ages
  • Organ specific dosimetry with minimal detectors
  • Superior tissue simulation and lifelike imaging properties
  • Homogeneous bone
  • Accommodates wide variety of detectors
  • Age appropriate references

NOTE: This product or an optional accessory of this product requires a CIRS dosimetry cavity code before an order can be placed. Please refer to the Dosimetry Cavity Codes document to identify the CIRS code for the probe you intend to use with this product.

Data Sheet

ATOM® Dosimetry Verification Phantoms: Data Sheet


ATOM® Dosimetry Verification Phantoms: Brochure

Dosimetry Cavity Codes

Cavity Codes for Dosimetry Devices


Salas Ramirez, Maikol; 'Methods to Improve Bone Marrow Dosimetry in Molecular Radiotherapy'. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics. 2021; View
Dillon, Jessica; JOHNSON, B; BROOME, A; MOL, A; PLATIN, E; 'A Comparison of Contemporary Portable X-Ray Systems'. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology. 2020; 130 (2): e62-e63. Elsevier. View
Ting, Stephanie; Attaia, Diana; Johnson, K Brandon; Kossa, Samer Shoukry; Friedland, Bernard; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Masoud, Mohamed I; 'Can modifying shielding, field of view, and exposure settings make the effective dose of a cone-beam computed tomography comparable to traditional radiographs used for orthodontic diagnosis?'. arXiv preprint arXiv:2009.04652. 2020; View
Ali, RMKM; England, A; McEntee, MF; Mercer, CE; Tootell, A; Hogg, P; 'Effective lifetime radiation risk for a number of national mammography screening programmes'. Radiography. 2018; 24 (3): 240-246. WB Saunders. View
Charyyev, Serdar; Chang, Chih-Wei; Harms, Joseph Mark; Oancea, Cristina; Yoon, S Tim; Yang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Tiezhi; Zhou, Jun; Lin, Liyong; 'A novel proton counting detector and method for the validation of tissue and implant material maps for Monte Carlo dose calculation'. PLoS ONE. 2019; 14 (8): e0221692. View
Jaffe TA, Yoshizumi TT, Toncheva G, et al. Radiation Dose for Body CT Protocols: Variability of Scanners at One Institution. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2009; 193(4):1141-1147. Bildverarbeitung für die Medizin 2019. 2019; 270-275. Springer Vieweg, Wiesbaden. View
Sasak, Krzysztof; Milcewicz-Mika, Izabela; Pyszka, Ewelina; Gałeczka, Michał; Fiszer, Roland; Staniszewska, Maria Anna; 'Comparison of X-ray Doses for Child and Adult Patients Undergoing ASD Procedure'. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences. 2020; 51 (4): 599-603. Elsevier. View
Somasundaram, Elanchezhian; Brady, Samuel L; Strauss, Keith J; 'Achievable dose reductions with gonadal shielding for children and adults during abdominal/pelvic radiographic examinations: A Monte Carlo simulation'. Physics in Medicine & Biology. 2020; View
Fukuda, Atsushi; Lin, Pei-Jan Paul; 'Covering the patient’s arm support in lead reduced the radiation dose rate to the cardiologists during percutaneous coronary interventions: a phantom study'. 2020; US Patent App. 16/083,393. View
Fehrmann, ML; Schegerer, A; Werncke, T; Schlattl, H; 'Comparison of Experimental and Numerical Methods of Patient dose Estimations in CT Using Anthropomorphic Models'. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 2020; 192 (2): 139-151. Oxford University Press. View
Furuta, Hiroshige; Tsujimura, Norio; Nishide, Akemi; Kudo, Shin’ichi; Saigusa, Shin; 'Conversion factor from dosemeter reading to air kerma for nuclear worker using anthropomorphic phantom for further conversion from air kerma to organ-absorbed dose'. Oral radiology. 2020; 1-6. Springer. View
Inkinen, SI; Juntunen, MAK; Kotiaho, A; Nieminen, MT; 'Calibration method and photon flux influences tiled flat-panel photon counting detector image uniformity in computed tomography'. Radiography. 2020; Elsevier. View
Joo, Young-Cheol; Kim, Sheung-Hyuk; 'Effects of Breast Dose on Plain Abdominal Position'. Journal of Integrative Cardiology Open Access. 2020; 3 (1): View
Kim, Eun-Kyung; 'Dose estimation of cone-beam computed tomography in children using personal computer-based Monte Carlo software'. Medical Physics. 2020; 47 (11): 5514-5522. View
Roser, Philipp; Birkhold, Annette; Preuhs, Alexander; Ochs, Philipp; Stepina, Elizaveta; Strobel, Norbert; Kowarschik, Markus; Fahrig, Rebecca; Maier, Andreas; 'XDose: toward online cross-validation of experimental and computational X-ray dose estimation'. Radiation protection dosimetry. 2020; 188 (3): 340-349. Oxford University Press. View
Saeed, MK; 'Comparison of estimated and calculated fetal radiation dose for a pregnant woman who underwent computed tomography and conventional X-ray examinations based on a phantom study'. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 2020; 190 (1): 71-83. Oxford University Press. View
Sarosiek, Christina; DeJongh, Ethan A; Coutrakon, George; DeJongh, Don F; Duffin, Kirk L; Karonis, Nicholas T; Ordoñez, Caesar E; Pankuch, Mark; Rykalin, Victor; Winans, John R; 'Analysis of characteristics of images acquired with a prototype clinical proton radiography system.'. Radiation protection dosimetry. 2020; 189 (3): 371-383. Oxford University Press. View
Colnot, Julie; Zefkili, Sofia; Gschwind, Régine; Huet, Christelle; 'Out‐of‐field doses from radiotherapy using photon beams: A comparative study for a pediatric renal treatment'. Journal of Instrumentation. 2020; 15 (8): T08005. IOP Publishing. View
Kuan-Heng, Lin; Chen-Xiong, Hsu; Shan-Ying, Wang; Chiu-Han, Chang; Hui-Ju, Tien; Pei-Wei, Shueng; Tung-Hsin, Wu; 'Volume-based algorithm of lung dose optimization in novel dynamic arc radiotherapy for esophageal cancer'. Journal of radiological science and technology. 2020; 43 (3): 155-159. Korean Society of Radiological Science. View
Kron, Tomas; Lonski, Peta; Yukihara, Eduardo G; 'Thermoluminescence Dosimetry (TLD) In Medicine: Five ‘W’s And One How'. The journal of the Korean dental association. 2020; 58 (7): 388-397. The Korean Dental Association. View
Jaffe TA, Neville AM, Anderson-Evans C, et al. Early First Trimester Fetal Dose Estimation Method in a Multivendor Study of 16- and 64-MDCT Scanners and Low-Dose Imaging Protocols. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2009; 193(4):1019-1024.  International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery. 2020; View
Roser, Philipp; Birkhold, Annette; Zhong, Xia; Stepina, Elizaveta; Kowarschik, Markus; Fahrig, Rebecca; Maier, Andreas; 'Effects of tissue material properties on x-ray image, scatter and patient dose a monte carlo simulation'. Phys Med Biol.. 2021; 66 (4): 2-Feb. IOP Publishing. View
Ali, Raed MKM; England, Andrew; Tootell, Andrew K; Hogg, Peter; 'Radiation dose from digital breast tomosynthesis screening–A comparison with full field digital mammography'. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 2021; View
Peltonen, Juha I; Kaasalainen, Touko; Kortesniemi, Mika; 'Metal artifacts in intraoperative O-arm CBCT scans'. AIP Conference Proceedings. 2021; 2348 (1): 50029. AIP Publishing LLC. View
Wochnik, Agnieszka; Stolarczyk, Liliana; Ambrožová, I; Davidkova, Marie; De Saint-Hubert, Marijke; Domański, Szymon; Domingo, Carles; Knežević, Željka; Kopeć, R; Kuć, Michał; 'Out-of-field doses for scanning proton radiotherapy of shallowly located paediatric tumours—a comparison of range shifter and 3D printed compensator'. Physics and Imaging in Radiation Oncology. 2021; 19: 5-Jan. Elsevier. View
Waldner, Lovisa; Bernhardsson, Christian; Woda, Clemens; Trompier, Francois; Van Hoey, Olivier; Kulka, Ulrike; Oestreicher, Ursula; Bassinet, Celine; Rääf, C; Discher, Michael; 'The 2019–2020 EURADOS WG10 and RENEB Field Test of Retrospective Dosimetry Methods in a Small-Scale Incident Involving Ionizing Radiation'. Radiological Physics and Technology. 2021; 44205. Springer Singapore.
D. Zhang, X. Li, Y. Gao, X. G. Xu, and B. Liu, “A method to acquire CT organ dose map using OSL dosimeters and ATOM anthropomorphic phantoms,” American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), 24-Jul-2013. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 13-Jan-2021] Medical Physics. 2021; View
Becker SJ, Elliston C, Dewyngaert K, Jozsef G, et al. Breast radiotherapy in the prone position primarily reduces the maximum out-of-field measured dose to the ipsilateral lung. Medical Physics. 2012; 39 (5): 2417-23. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics. 2021; Wiley Online Library. View
Zhu X, Cahill A M, Felice M, Johnson L, Sarmiento M. Developing Low-Dose C-Arm Ct Imaging for Temporomandibular Joint (tmj) Disorder in Interventional Radiology. Pediatric Radiology. 2010; 41.4:476-482. Scientific Reports (Nature Publisher Group). 2021; 11 (1): Nature Publishing Group. View
Howell RM, Scarboro SB, Kry S, Yaldo DZ. Accuracy of out-of-field dose calculations by a commercial treatment planning system. Physics in Medicine and Biology. 2010; 55(23):6999-7008. BMC Medical Imaging. 2021; 21 (1): 44202. BioMed Central. View
Howell RM, Scarboro SB, Taddei PJ, et al. Methodology for determining doses to in-field, out-of-field and partially in-field organs for late effects studies in photon radiotherapy. Physics in Medicine and Biology. 2010; 55(23):7009-7023. Physics in Medicine & Biology. 2021; 66 (3): 35012. IOP Publishing. View
Thornton RH, Dauer LT, Altamirano JP, et al. Comparing strategies for operator eye protection in the interventional radiology suite. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. 2010; 21(11):1703-1707.  Radiation Research. 2021; 195 (3): 253-264. Radiation Research Society. View
Miksys N, Gordon CL, Thomas K, Connolly BL. Estimating Effective Dose to Pediatric Patients Undergoing Interventional Radiology Procedures Using Anthropomorphic Phantoms and MOSFET Dosimeters. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2010; 194(5):1315-1322. Radiotherapy and Oncology. 2021; Elsevier. View
Scarboro SB, Stovall M, White A, et al. Effect of organ size and position on out-of-field dose distributions during radiation therapy. Physics in Medicine and Biology. 2010; 55(23):7025-7036.  JBJS. 2021; 10.2106. LWW. View
Lee, Kuk Sun; Nam, Ok Hyung; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Choi, Sung Chul; Choi, Yong-Suk; Hwang, Eui-Hwan; 'Radiation dosimetry analyses of radiographic imaging systems used for orthodontic treatment: comparison among child, adolescent, and adult patients'. J Dental Health Oral Res. 2021; 2 (2): 28-Jan. View
Saeed, MK; Almalki, Y; 'Assessment of computed tomography radiation doses for paediatric head and chest examinations using paediatric phantoms of three different ages'. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 2021; 194 (4): 201-207. Oxford University Press. View
Kuttner, Hannes; Benninger, Emanuel; Fretz, Valentin; Meier, Christoph; 'The impact of the fluoroscopic view on radiation exposure in pelvic surgery: organ involvement, effective dose and the misleading concept of only measuring fluoroscopy time or the dose area product'. European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology. 2021; 7-Jan. Springer. View
CHEN, Xin; ZHANG, Weiyuan; ZHUO, Weihai; 'Estimation of patient doses in paediatric cardiovascular interventional radiology under specific exposure conditions'. Chinese Journal of Radiological Medicine and Protection. 2021; 199-204. View
Wang, Bow; Ting, Chien-Yi; Lai, Cheng-Shih; Tsai, Yi-Shan; 'Bismuth Pelvic X-Ray Shielding Reduces Radiation Dose Exposure in Pediatric Radiography'. BioMed Research International. 2021; 2021: Hindawi. View
Jadick, Giavanna; Abadi, Ehsan; Harrawood, Brian; Sharma, Shobhit; Segars, W Paul; Samei, Ehsan; 'A scanner-specific framework for simulating CT images with tube current modulation'. Physics in Medicine & Biology. 2021; 66 (18): 185010. IOP Publishing. View
Song, Ok kyu; Chung, Yong Eun, et al. 'Metal implants influence CT scan parameters leading to increased local radiation exposure: A proposal for correction techniques'. View
Dalah, Entesar Zawam; Araz, Samia; Bilal, Ghaida Tarig; Noorajan, Zarmeena; El Mehdi, Hussein; Zgallai, Walid; 'Evaluating and comparing a pediatric cervical-supine image quality obtained using different digital radiography machines: phantom study'. View
Foster, Robert Evans; Cooper, Lloyd Guyton Bowers; Livingstpn, William Thomas; D PHILLIPS, Foster; 'Radiation shielding system'. 2020 Advances in Science and Engineering Technology International Conferences (ASET). 6-Jan. IEEE. View
Bastos M d'Almeida, Lee EY, Strauss KJ, et al. Motion Artifact on High-Resolution CT Images of Pediatric Patients: Comparison of Volumetric and Axial CT Methods. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2009; 193(5):1414-1418.  View
McDermott A, White RA, Mc-Nitt-Gray M, Angel E, Cody D. Pediatric organ dose measurements in axial and helical multislice CT. Medical Physics. 2009; 36(5).  View
Mazonakis M, Zacharopoulou F, Varveris H, Damilakis J. Peripheral dose measurements for 6 and 18 MV photon beams on a linear accelerator with multileaf collimator. Medical Physics. 2008; 35(10):4396-4403.  View
Papadakis AE, Perisinakis K, Damilakis J. Automatic exposure control in pediatric and adult multidetector CT examinations: a phantom study on dose reduction and image quality. Medical Physics. 2008; 35(10):4567-4576. View
Coursey C, Frush DP, Yoshizumi T, et al. Pediatric Chest MDCT Using Tube Current Modulation: Effect on Radiation Dose with Breast Shielding. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2008; 190(1):W54-61.  View
Hollingsworth CL, Yoshizumi TT, Frush DP, et al. Pediatric Cardiac-Gated CT Angiography: Assessment of Radiation Dose. American Journal of Roentgenology.2007; 189(1):12-18. View
Brenner DJ, McCollough CH, Orton CG. It is time to retire the computed tomography dose index (CTDI) for CT quality assurance and dose optimization. Medical Physics. 2006; 33(5). View
Damilakis J, Stratakis J, Raissaki M, et al. Normalized dose data for upper gastrointestinal tract contrast studies performed to infants. Medical Physics. 2006; 33(4). View
Hurwitz LM, Yoshizumi TT, Reiman RE, Paulson EK et al. Radiation Dose to the Female Breast from 16-MDCT Body Protocols. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2006; 186(6):1718-22. View
Jaffe TA, Gaca AM, Delaney S, Yoshizumi TT, et al. Radiation doses from small-bowel follow-through and abdominopelvic MDCT in Crohn's disease. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2007; 189 (5): 1015-22.  View
Ranade M, Lynch B, Li J, Dempsey J. TH-E-224A-04: IMRT Film QA in a Heterogeneous Anthropomorphic Phantom. Medical Physics. 2006; 33(6).  View
Hood C, Kron T, Hamilton C, et al. Correlation of 3D-planned and measured dosimetry of photon and electron craniospinal radiation in a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom. Radiotherapy and Oncology. 2005; 77(1):111-116. View
Kudchadker RJ, Chang EL, Bryan F, Maor MH, Famiglietti R. An evaluation of radiation exposure from portal films taken during definitive course of pediatric radiotherapy. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics. 2004; 59(4):1229-1235. View
Fricke BL, Donnelly LF, Frush DP, et al. In-Plane Bismuth Breast Shields for Pediatric CT: Effects on Radiation Dose and Image Quality Using Experimental and Clinical Data. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2003; 180(2):407-411.  View
Varchena V. Pediatric phantoms. Pediatric Radiology. 2002; 32(4):280-284. View
Dhabaan A, Schreibmann E, Siddiqi A, et al. Six degrees of freedom CBCT-based positioning for intracranial targets treated with frameless stereotactic radiosurgery. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2012;13(6):3916.
Emigh B, Gordon CL, Connolly BL, Falkiner M, Thomas KE. Effective dose estimation for pediatric upper gastrointestinal examinations using an anthropomorphic phantom set and metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) technology. Pediatr Radiol. 2013. View
Martínez-rovira I, Sempau J, Prezado Y. Monte Carlo-based dose calculation engine for minibeam radiation therapy. Phys Med. 2013. View
Tootell AK, Szczepura KR, Hogg P. Optimising the number of thermoluminescent dosimeters required for the measurement of effective dose for computed tomography attenuation correction data in SPECT/CT myocardial perfusion imaging. Radiography. 2013;19(1):42-47.  View
Zhang R, Howell RM, Giebeler A, Taddei PJ, Mahajan A, Newhauser WD. Comparison of risk of radiogenic second cancer following photon and proton craniospinal irradiation for a pediatric medulloblastoma patient. Phys Med Biol. 2013;58(4):807-23.  View
Solomon JB, Li X, Samei E. Relating noise to image quality indicators in CT examinations with tube current modulation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013;200(3):592-600. View
Huang JY, Followill DS, Wang XA, Kry SF. Accuracy and sources of error of out-of field dose calculations by a commercial treatment planning system for intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatments. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2013;14(2):4139.  View
Chan S, Ho Y, Tyan Y, Tsai H. Organ dose and scattering dose for CT coronary angiography and calcium scoring using automatic tube current modulation. Radiation Measurements. 2013.  View
Wang AJ, Goldsmith ZG, Wang C, et al. Obesity triples the radiation dose of stone protocol computerized tomography. J Urol. 2013;189(6):2142-6.  View
Johnston JH, Podberesky DJ, Yoshizumi TT, et al. Comparison of radiation dose estimates, image noise, and scan duration in pediatric body imaging for volumetric and helical modes on 320-detector CT and helical mode on 64-detector CT. Pediatr Radiol. 2013. View
Szczykutowicz TP, Mistretta CA. Design of a digital beam attenuation system for computed tomography. Part II. Performance study and initial results. Med Phys. 2013;40(2):021906.
Lee YW, Yang CC, Mok GS, Wu TH. Infant cardiac CT angiography with 64-slice and 256-slice CT: comparison of radiation dose and image quality using a pediatric phantom. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(11):e49609. View
Astroza G, Neisius A, Wang AJ, et al. Radiation Exposure in the follow-up of patients with urolithiasis comparing Digital Tomosynthesis, Non-Contrast CT, Standard KUB and IVP. J Endourol. 2013. View
Neisius A, Wang AJ, Wang C, et al. Radiation Exposure in Urology - A Genitourinary Catalogue for diagnostic imaging. J Urol. 2013. View
Thapa, Bishnu Bahadur, "DEVELOPMENT OF A PATIENT SPECIFIC IMAGE PLANNING SYSTEM FOR RADIATION THERAPY" (2013).Theses and Dissertations--Physics and Astronomy.Paper 11. View
Anderson-Evans, Colin David. "Estimating Effective Dose from Phantom Dose Measurements in Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Procedures and Comparison of MOSFET and TLD Detectors in a Small Animal Dosimetry Setting." Thesis. Thesis / Dissertation ETD, 2011. Print.  View
Lipkin ME, Wang AJ, Toncheva G, Ferrandino MN, Yoshizumi TT, Preminger GM. Determination of patient radiation dose during ureteroscopic treatment of urolithiasis using a validated model. J Urol. 2012;187(3):920-4. View
Fujii K, Akahane K, Miyazaki O, et al. Evaluation of organ doses in CT examinations with an infant anthropomorphic phantom. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2011;147(1-2):151-5.  View
Hranitzky, C., & Stadtmann, H. (January 01, 2011). Patient dosimetry study of a paediatric CT examination. Radiation Measurements, 46, 12, 2035-2038. View
Theodorakou, C., Walker, A., Horner, K., Pauwels, R., Bogaerts, R., Jacobs, R., & SEDENTEXCT Project Consortium. (January 01, 2012). Estimation of paediatric organ and effective doses from dental cone beam CT using anthropomorphic phantoms. The British Journal of Radiology, 85, 1010, 153-60. View
Govia, K., Connolly, B. L., Thomas, K. E., & Gordon, C. L. (April 01, 2012). Estimates of Effective Dose to Pediatric Patients Undergoing Enteric and Venous Access Procedures.Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, 23, 4, 443-450. View
Johnson JN, Hornik CP, Li JS, et al. Response to letters regarding article, "cumulative radiation exposure and cancer risk estimation in children with heart disease". Circulation. 2015;131(16):e419-20.
Davis AT, Safi H, Maddison SM. The reduction of dose in paediatric panoramic radiography: the impact of collimator height and programme selection. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2015;44(2):20140223. View
Beeksma B, Truant D, Holloway L, Arumugam S. An assessment of image distortion and CT number accuracy within a wide-bore CT extended field of view. Australas Phys Eng Sci Med. 2015;  View
Januzis N, Nguyen G, Frush DP, Hoang JK, Lowry C, Yoshizumi TT. Feasibility of using the computed tomography dose indices to estimate radiation dose to partially and fully irradiated brains in pediatric neuroradiology examinations. Phys Med Biol. 2015;60(14):5699-710. View
Rehn, Emelie. "Modeling of Scatter Radiation during Interventional X-ray Procedures." Thesis. Linköping University, Sweden, 2015. View
Kaasalainen T, Palmu K, Lampinen A, et al. Limiting CT radiation dose in children with craniosynostosis: phantom study using model-based iterative reconstruction. Pediatr Radiol. 2015.  View
Baskan, O., Erol, C., Ozbek, H., & Paksoy, Y. (2015). Effect of radiation dose reduction on image quality in adult head CT with noise-suppressing reconstruction system with a 256 slice MDCT. Journal Of Applied Clinical Medical Physics, 16(3). doi:10.1120/jacmp.v16i3.5360  View
Taddei PJ, Jalbout W, Howell RM, Khater N, Geara FB, Homann K, Newhauser WD.  Analytical model for out-of-field dose in photon craniospinal irradiation.  Phys. Med. Biol.  58, 7463-7479 (2013).  View
Fisher, R., & Hintenlang, D. (2014). Super-size me: adipose tissue-equivalent additions for anthropomorphic phantoms. Journal Of Applied Clinical Medical Physics, 15(6). doi:10.1120/jacmp.v15i6.5007.  View
Hidalgo A, Davies J, Horner K, Theodorakou C. Effectiveness of thyroid gland shielding in dental CBCT using a paediatric anthropomorphic phantom. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2015;44(3):20140285.  View
Kim, Jin-Young, Shin-Wook Kim, Bo-Young Choe, Tae-Suk Suh, Sung-Kwang Park, Sun-Mi Jo, Won-Yong Oh, Jung-Wook Shin, Gyu-Seok Cho, Song-Hee Nam, Jin-Beom Chong, Jung-Ki Kim, and Young-Kyu Lee. "Clinical Assessment of the Jaw-tracking Function in IMRT for a Brain Tumor."Journal of the Korean Physical Society 66.2 (2015): 295-300. View
Januzis N, Nguyen G, Hoang JK, Lowry C, Yoshizumi TT. A novel method of estimating effective dose from the point dose method: a case study--parathyroid CT scans. Phys Med Biol. 2015;60(5):1763-73.  View
Kataria B, Sandborg M, Althén JN. IMPLICATIONS OF PATIENT CENTRING ON ORGAN DOSE IN COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2016;:ncv527.  View
Werncke T, Von falck C, Luepke M, Stamm G, Wacker FK, Meyer BC. Collimation and Image Quality of C-Arm Computed Tomography: Potential of Radiation Dose Reduction While Maintaining Equal Image Quality. Invest Radiol. 2015;50(8):514-21.  View
John D. Thompson ; Dev P. Chakraborty ; Katy Szczepura ; Ioannis Vamvakas ; Andrew Tootell, et al. " A phantom-based JAFROC observer study of two CT reconstruction methods: the search for optimisation of lesion detection and effective dose ", Proc. SPIE 9416, Medical Imaging 2015: Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment, 94160B (March 17, 2015); doi:10.1117/12.2081632;  View
David A. P. Dunkerley ; Michael T. Tomkowiak ; Jordan M. Slagowski ; Bradley P. McCabe ; Tobias Funk, et al. " Monte Carlo simulation of inverse geometry x-ray fluoroscopy using a modified MC-GPU framework ", Proc. SPIE 9412, Medical Imaging 2015: Physics of Medical Imaging, 94120S (March 18, 2015); doi:10.1117/12.2081684;  View
Greffier, J., F. Macri, A. Larbi, A. Fernandez, E. Khasanova, F. Pereira, C. Mekkaoui, and J.P. Beregi. "Dose Reduction with Iterative Reconstruction: Optimization of CT Protocols in Clinical Practice." ScienceDirect. Elsevier, May 2015. Web.  View
Mege JP, Wenzhao S, Veres A, Auzac G, Diallo I, Lefkopoulos D. Evaluation of MVCT imaging dose levels during helical IGRT: comparison between ion chamber, TLD, and EBT3 films. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2016;17(1):5774.  View
Hill KD, Wang C, Einstein AJ, et al. Impact of imaging approach on radiation dose and associated cancer risk in children undergoing cardiac catheterization. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2016;  View
Atsalaki, M., G. Solomou, A.E. Papadakis, and J. Damilakis. "Optimization of Head Radiographic Examination Protocols in Pediatric Patients." Elsevier, 26 Aug. 2016. Web.  View
Tan SK, Yeong CH, Ng KH, Abdul aziz YF, Sun Z. Recent Update on Radiation Dose Assessment for the State-of-the-Art Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Protocols. PLOS ONE. 2016;11(8):e0161543.  View
Zhu, X., W.P. McCullough, P. Mecca, et al. "Dual-energy Compared to Single-energy CT in Pediatric Imaging: A Phantom Study for DECT Clinical Guidance." Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2016. Web.  View
Tootell, A., M. McEntee, K. Szczepura, and P. Hogg. "Effective Dose and Effective Risk from Post–Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Imaging of the Lumbar Spine." Elsevier, 2016. Web.  View
Guberina, N., S. Suntharalingam, K. Naßenstein, et al. "Clinical Evaluation of a Dose Monitoring Software Tool Based on Monte Carlo Simulation in Assessment of Eye Lens Doses for Cranial CT Scans." Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2016. Web.  View
Cheng CS, Jong WL, Ung NM, Wong J. Evaluation of Imaging Dose From Different Image Guided Systems During Head and Neck Radiotherapy: A Phantom Study. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2016;  View
Park SY, Choi CH, Park JM, Chun M, Han JH, Kim JI. A Patient-Specific Polylactic Acid Bolus Made by a 3D Printer for Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy. PLOS ONE. 2016;11(12):e0168063.  View
Shin, R., F. Cabrera, G. Nguyen, et al. "Radiation Dosimetry for Ureteroscopy Patients: A Phantom Study Comparing the Standard and Obese Patient Models." Journal of Endourology, 2016. Web.  View
Masuda, T., Y. Funama, M. Kiguchi, et el. "Radiation Dose Reduction Based on CNR Index with Low-tube Voltage Scan for Pediatric CT Scan: Experimental Study Using Anthropomorphic Phantoms." SpringerPlus, 2016. Web.  View
Sookpeng, S., and C. Butdee. "Signal-to-noise Ratio and Dose to the Lens of the Eye for Computed Tomography Examination of the Brain Using an Automatic Tube Current Modulation System." Emergency Radiology, 2016. Web.  View
Guberina, N., U. Lechel, M. Forsting, and A. Ringelstein. "Efficacy of High-pitch CT Protocols for Radiation Dose Reduction." IOP Publishing, 2016. Web.  View
Pitteloud, M., A. Gamulin, C. Barea, et al. "Radiation Exposure Using the O-arm® Surgical Imaging System." European Spine Journal, 2016. Web.  View
Thompson, JD, DP Chakraborty, K. Szczepura, et al. "Effect of Reconstruction Methods and X-ray Tube Current on Nodule Detection in an Anthropomorphic Thorax Phantom: A Crossed-modality JAFROC Observer Study." ResearchGate, 2016. Web.  View
Chung, K., Y. Han, S. H. Ahn, et al. "Commissioning and Validation of a Dedicated Scanning Nozzle at Samsung Proton Therapy Center." Korean Society of Medical Physics, 2016. Web.  View
Gomez-Cardona, D., J. Hayes, and R. Zhang. "Low Signal Correction Scheme for Low Dose CBCT: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly." Proc. SPIE 10132, Medical Imaging 2017: Physics of Medical Imaging, 101320Z, 2017. Web.  View
Muñoz-Moral, E; Rodríguez-Laguna, A; Jiménez-Acosta, JA; 'Implementation of total body irradiation using VMAT'. View
Garrett, Lachlan; Hardcastle, Nicholas; Yeo, Adam; Lonski, Peta; Franich, Rick; Kron, Tomas; 'Out-of-field dose in stereotactic radiotherapy for paediatric patients'. View
Almén, A; Andersson, M; O’Connor, U; Abdelrahman, M; Camp, A; García, V; Duch, MA; Ginjaume, M; Vanhavere, F; 'Personal Dosimetry Using Monte-Carlo Simulations For Occupational Dose Monitoring In Interventional Radiology: The Results Of A Proof Of Concept In A Clinical Setting'. View
Dalah, Entesar Zawam; Araz, Samia; Bilal, Ghaida Tarig; Noorajan, Zarmeena; El Mehdi, Hussein; Zgallai, Walid; 'Evaluating and comparing a pediatric cervical-supine image quality obtained using different digital radiography machines: phantom study'.
Bryce-Atkinson, Abigail; De Jong, Rianne; Marchant, Tom; Whitfield, Gillian; Aznar, Marianne C; Bel, Arjan; van Herk, Marcel; 'Low dose cone beam CT for paediatric image-guided radiotherapy: image quality and practical recommendations'. View
Ok, Song; Chung, YE; Seo, N; Baek, SE; 'Metal implants influence CT scan parameters leading to increased local radiation exposure: A proposal for correction techniques'.
Van Nortwick, Sara S; Leonard, Dana A; Finlay, Andrea K; Chou, Loretta; Valone, Lindsey C; 'Methods for Reducing Intraoperative Breast Radiation Exposure of Orthopaedic Surgeons'. View
Goren, AD; 'Dosimetry Comparison of CBCT versus Digital 2D Orthodontic Imaging in a Pediatric Orthodontic Patient'. View
Masuda, Takanori; Funama, Yoshinori; Nakaura, Takeshi; Sato, Tomoyasu; Tahara, Masahiro; Takei, Yasutaka; Yamashita, Yukari; Oku, Takayuki; Masuda, Shouko; Kiguchi, Masao; 'Use of Vacuum Mattresses can Reduce The Absorbed Dose During Pediatric Ct'. View
Guerra, Vivian Heidorne; 'Otimização de doses em procedimentos de tomografia computadorizada pediátrica'.