ATOM® Dosimetry Verification Phantoms

Model 701-706
WHOLE BODY DOSE • ORGAN DOSE • THERAPEUTIC RADIATION

CIRS ATOM ® phantoms are a full line of anthropomorphic, cross sectional dosimetry phantoms designed to investigate organ dose, whole body effective dose as well as verification of delivery of therapeutic radiation doses.

ATOM is the only line of dosimetry phantoms to range in sizes from newborn to adult. Six models are available: newborn, 1-year, 5-year and 10-year old pediatric phantoms as well as adult male and female phantoms.

Each phantom is sectional in design with traditional 25 mm thick sections. The sectional surfaces are extremely flat and smooth and do not require any special coatings or treatment. This results in minimal interfaces between the slabs when viewed in a scout or projection X-ray. The ATOM line also differs from other dosimetry phantoms by providing optimized TLD locations specific to 21 inner organs.

Tissue-equivalent epoxy resins are used in all aspects of the phantom. CIRS technology offers superior tissue simulation Dosimetry Verification Phantoms by covering a wider range of energy levels from diagnostic to therapeutic. In addition, all bones are homogeneous and are formulated to represent age appropriate, average bone composition. CIRS bone formulations offer distinct advantages over natural skeletons and other types of simulated bone.

Features:
  • Phantom models cover a wide range of patient ages
  • Organ specific dosimetry with minimal detectors
  • Superior tissue simulation and lifelike imaging properties
  • Homogeneous bone
  • Accommodates wide variety of detectors
  • Age appropriate references

NOTE: This product or an optional accessory of this product requires a CIRS dosimetry cavity code before an order can be placed. Please refer to the Dosimetry Cavity Codes document to identify the CIRS code for the probe you intend to use with this product.

Data Sheet

ATOM® Dosimetry Verification Phantoms: Data Sheet

Brochure

ATOM® Dosimetry Verification Phantoms: Brochure

Dosimetry Cavity Codes

Cavity Codes for Dosimetry Devices

Videos

'A Comparison of Contemporary Portable X-Ray Systems'. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology. 2020; 130 (2): e60. Mosby. View
'Can modifying shielding, field of view, and exposure settings make the effective dose of a cone-beam computed tomography comparable to traditional radiographs used for orthodontic diagnosis?'. The Angle Orthodontist. 2020; 90 (5): 655-664. Edward H. Angle Society of Orthodontists. View
'Effects of tissue material properties on x-ray image, scatter and patient dose a monte carlo simulation'. Bildverarbeitung für die Medizin 2019. 2019; 270-275. Springer Vieweg, Wiesbaden. View
'Radiation dose from digital breast tomosynthesis screening–A comparison with full field digital mammography'. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences. 2020; 51 (4): 599-603. Elsevier. View
'A novel proton counting detector and method for the validation of tissue and implant material maps for Monte Carlo dose calculation'. Physics in Medicine & Biology. 2020; View
'Radiation shielding system'. 2020; US Patent App. 16/083,393. View
'Thermoluminescence Dosimetry (TLD) In Medicine: Five ‘W’s And One How'. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 2020; 192 (2): 139-151. Oxford University Press. View
'Radiation dosimetry analyses of radiographic imaging systems used for orthodontic treatment: comparison among child, adolescent, and adult patients'. Oral radiology. 2020; 1-6. Springer. View
'Assessment of computed tomography radiation doses for paediatric head and chest examinations using paediatric phantoms of three different ages'. Radiography. 2020; Elsevier. View
'Comparison of X-ray Doses for Child and Adult Patients Undergoing ASD Procedure'. Journal of Integrative Cardiology Open Access. 2020; 3 (1): View
'Achievable dose reductions with gonadal shielding for children and adults during abdominal/pelvic radiographic examinations: A Monte Carlo simulation'. Medical Physics. 2020; 47 (11): 5514-5522. View
'Covering the patient’s arm support in lead reduced the radiation dose rate to the cardiologists during percutaneous coronary interventions: a phantom study'. Radiation protection dosimetry. 2020; 188 (3): 340-349. Oxford University Press. View
'Comparison of Experimental and Numerical Methods of Patient dose Estimations in CT Using Anthropomorphic Models'. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 2020; 190 (1): 71-83. Oxford University Press. View
'Conversion factor from dosemeter reading to air kerma for nuclear worker using anthropomorphic phantom for further conversion from air kerma to organ-absorbed dose'. Radiation protection dosimetry. 2020; 189 (3): 371-383. Oxford University Press. View
'Calibration method and photon flux influences tiled flat-panel photon counting detector image uniformity in computed tomography'. Journal of Instrumentation. 2020; 15 (8): T08005. IOP Publishing. View
'Effects of Breast Dose on Plain Abdominal Position'. Journal of radiological science and technology. 2020; 43 (3): 155-159. Korean Society of Radiological Science. View
'Dose estimation of cone-beam computed tomography in children using personal computer-based Monte Carlo software'. The journal of the Korean dental association. 2020; 58 (7): 388-397. The Korean Dental Association. View
'XDose: toward online cross-validation of experimental and computational X-ray dose estimation'. International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery. 2020; View
'Comparison of estimated and calculated fetal radiation dose for a pregnant woman who underwent computed tomography and conventional X-ray examinations based on a phantom study'. Radiological Physics and Technology. 2021; 44205. Springer Singapore. View
'Analysis of characteristics of images acquired with a prototype clinical proton radiography system.'. Medical Physics. 2021; View
'Out‐of‐field doses from radiotherapy using photon beams: A comparative study for a pediatric renal treatment'. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics. 2021; Wiley Online Library. View
'Volume-based algorithm of lung dose optimization in novel dynamic arc radiotherapy for esophageal cancer'. Scientific Reports (Nature Publisher Group). 2021; 11 (1): Nature Publishing Group. View
'Metal artifacts in intraoperative O-arm CBCT scans'. BMC Medical Imaging. 2021; 21 (1): 44202. BioMed Central. View
'Out-of-field doses for scanning proton radiotherapy of shallowly located paediatric tumours—a comparison of range shifter and 3D printed compensator'. Physics in Medicine & Biology. 2021; 66 (3): 35012. IOP Publishing. View
'The 2019–2020 EURADOS WG10 and RENEB Field Test of Retrospective Dosimetry Methods in a Small-Scale Incident Involving Ionizing Radiation'. Radiation Research. 2021; 195 (3): 253-264. Radiation Research Society. View
'D. Zhang, X. Li, Y. Gao, X. G. Xu, and B. Liu, “A method to acquire CT organ dose map using OSL dosimeters and ATOM anthropomorphic phantoms,” American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), 24-Jul-2013. [Online]. Available: https://aapm.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1118/1.4816299. [Accessed: 13-Jan-2021]'.
'Becker SJ, Elliston C, Dewyngaert K, Jozsef G, et al. Breast radiotherapy in the prone position primarily reduces the maximum out-of-field measured dose to the ipsilateral lung. Medical Physics. 2012; 39 (5): 2417-23.'.
'Zhu X, Cahill A M, Felice M, Johnson L, Sarmiento M. Developing Low-Dose C-Arm Ct Imaging for Temporomandibular Joint (tmj) Disorder in Interventional Radiology. Pediatric Radiology. 2010; 41.4:476-482.'.
'Howell RM, Scarboro SB, Kry S, Yaldo DZ. Accuracy of out-of-field dose calculations by a commercial treatment planning system. Physics in Medicine and Biology. 2010; 55(23):6999-7008.'.
'Howell RM, Scarboro SB, Taddei PJ, et al. Methodology for determining doses to in-field, out-of-field and partially in-field organs for late effects studies in photon radiotherapy. Physics in Medicine and Biology. 2010; 55(23):7009-7023.'.
'Thornton RH, Dauer LT, Altamirano JP, et al. Comparing strategies for operator eye protection in the interventional radiology suite. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. 2010; 21(11):1703-1707. '.
'Miksys N, Gordon CL, Thomas K, Connolly BL. Estimating Effective Dose to Pediatric Patients Undergoing Interventional Radiology Procedures Using Anthropomorphic Phantoms and MOSFET Dosimeters. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2010; 194(5):1315-1322.'.
'Scarboro SB, Stovall M, White A, et al. Effect of organ size and position on out-of-field dose distributions during radiation therapy. Physics in Medicine and Biology. 2010; 55(23):7025-7036. '.
'Kim S, Yoshizumi TT, Frush DP, Toncheva G, Yin F-FF. Radiation dose from cone beam CT in a pediatric phantom: risk estimation of cancer incidence. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2010; 194(1):186-190.'.
'Jaffe TA, Neville AM, Anderson-Evans C, et al. Early First Trimester Fetal Dose Estimation Method in a Multivendor Study of 16- and 64-MDCT Scanners and Low-Dose Imaging Protocols. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2009; 193(4):1019-1024. '.
'Jaffe TA, Yoshizumi TT, Toncheva G, et al. Radiation Dose for Body CT Protocols: Variability of Scanners at One Institution. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2009; 193(4):1141-1147.'.
'Bastos M d'Almeida, Lee EY, Strauss KJ, et al. Motion Artifact on High-Resolution CT Images of Pediatric Patients: Comparison of Volumetric and Axial CT Methods. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2009; 193(5):1414-1418. '.
'McDermott A, White RA, Mc-Nitt-Gray M, Angel E, Cody D. Pediatric organ dose measurements in axial and helical multislice CT. Medical Physics. 2009; 36(5). '.
'Mazonakis M, Zacharopoulou F, Varveris H, Damilakis J. Peripheral dose measurements for 6 and 18 MV photon beams on a linear accelerator with multileaf collimator. Medical Physics. 2008; 35(10):4396-4403. '.
'Papadakis AE, Perisinakis K, Damilakis J. Automatic exposure control in pediatric and adult multidetector CT examinations: a phantom study on dose reduction and image quality. Medical Physics. 2008; 35(10):4567-4576.'.
'Coursey C, Frush DP, Yoshizumi T, et al. Pediatric Chest MDCT Using Tube Current Modulation: Effect on Radiation Dose with Breast Shielding. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2008; 190(1):W54-61. '.
'Hollingsworth CL, Yoshizumi TT, Frush DP, et al. Pediatric Cardiac-Gated CT Angiography: Assessment of Radiation Dose. American Journal of Roentgenology.2007; 189(1):12-18.'.
'Brenner DJ, McCollough CH, Orton CG. It is time to retire the computed tomography dose index (CTDI) for CT quality assurance and dose optimization. Medical Physics. 2006; 33(5).'.
'Damilakis J, Stratakis J, Raissaki M, et al. Normalized dose data for upper gastrointestinal tract contrast studies performed to infants. Medical Physics. 2006; 33(4).'.
'Hurwitz LM, Yoshizumi TT, Reiman RE, Paulson EK et al. Radiation Dose to the Female Breast from 16-MDCT Body Protocols. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2006; 186(6):1718-22.'.
'Jaffe TA, Gaca AM, Delaney S, Yoshizumi TT, et al. Radiation doses from small-bowel follow-through and abdominopelvic MDCT in Crohn's disease. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2007; 189 (5): 1015-22. '.
'Ranade M, Lynch B, Li J, Dempsey J. TH-E-224A-04: IMRT Film QA in a Heterogeneous Anthropomorphic Phantom. Medical Physics. 2006; 33(6). '.
'Hood C, Kron T, Hamilton C, et al. Correlation of 3D-planned and measured dosimetry of photon and electron craniospinal radiation in a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom. Radiotherapy and Oncology. 2005; 77(1):111-116.'.
'Kudchadker RJ, Chang EL, Bryan F, Maor MH, Famiglietti R. An evaluation of radiation exposure from portal films taken during definitive course of pediatric radiotherapy. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics. 2004; 59(4):1229-1235.'.
'Fricke BL, Donnelly LF, Frush DP, et al. In-Plane Bismuth Breast Shields for Pediatric CT: Effects on Radiation Dose and Image Quality Using Experimental and Clinical Data. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2003; 180(2):407-411. '.
'Varchena V. Pediatric phantoms. Pediatric Radiology. 2002; 32(4):280-284.'.
'Dhabaan A, Schreibmann E, Siddiqi A, et al. Six degrees of freedom CBCT-based positioning for intracranial targets treated with frameless stereotactic radiosurgery. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2012;13(6):3916.'.
'Emigh B, Gordon CL, Connolly BL, Falkiner M, Thomas KE. Effective dose estimation for pediatric upper gastrointestinal examinations using an anthropomorphic phantom set and metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) technology. Pediatr Radiol. 2013.'.
'Martínez-rovira I, Sempau J, Prezado Y. Monte Carlo-based dose calculation engine for minibeam radiation therapy. Phys Med. 2013.'.
'Tootell AK, Szczepura KR, Hogg P. Optimising the number of thermoluminescent dosimeters required for the measurement of effective dose for computed tomography attenuation correction data in SPECT/CT myocardial perfusion imaging. Radiography. 2013;19(1):42-47. '.
'Zhang R, Howell RM, Giebeler A, Taddei PJ, Mahajan A, Newhauser WD. Comparison of risk of radiogenic second cancer following photon and proton craniospinal irradiation for a pediatric medulloblastoma patient. Phys Med Biol. 2013;58(4):807-23. '.
'Solomon JB, Li X, Samei E. Relating noise to image quality indicators in CT examinations with tube current modulation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013;200(3):592-600.'.
'Huang JY, Followill DS, Wang XA, Kry SF. Accuracy and sources of error of out-of field dose calculations by a commercial treatment planning system for intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatments. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2013;14(2):4139. '.
'Chan S, Ho Y, Tyan Y, Tsai H. Organ dose and scattering dose for CT coronary angiography and calcium scoring using automatic tube current modulation. Radiation Measurements. 2013. '.
'Wang AJ, Goldsmith ZG, Wang C, et al. Obesity triples the radiation dose of stone protocol computerized tomography. J Urol. 2013;189(6):2142-6. '.
'Ma H, Elbakri IA, Reed M. ESTIMATION OF ORGAN AND EFFECTIVE DOSES FROM NEWBORN RADIOGRAPHY OF THE CHEST AND ABDOMEN. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2013.'.
'Johnston JH, Podberesky DJ, Yoshizumi TT, et al. Comparison of radiation dose estimates, image noise, and scan duration in pediatric body imaging for volumetric and helical modes on 320-detector CT and helical mode on 64-detector CT. Pediatr Radiol. 2013.'.
'Szczykutowicz TP, Mistretta CA. Design of a digital beam attenuation system for computed tomography. Part II. Performance study and initial results. Med Phys. 2013;40(2):021906.'.
'Lee YW, Yang CC, Mok GS, Wu TH. Infant cardiac CT angiography with 64-slice and 256-slice CT: comparison of radiation dose and image quality using a pediatric phantom. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(11):e49609.'.
'Astroza G, Neisius A, Wang AJ, et al. Radiation Exposure in the follow-up of patients with urolithiasis comparing Digital Tomosynthesis, Non-Contrast CT, Standard KUB and IVP. J Endourol. 2013.'.
'Neisius A, Wang AJ, Wang C, et al. Radiation Exposure in Urology - A Genitourinary Catalogue for diagnostic imaging. J Urol. 2013.'.
'Thapa, Bishnu Bahadur, "DEVELOPMENT OF A PATIENT SPECIFIC IMAGE PLANNING SYSTEM FOR RADIATION THERAPY" (2013).Theses and Dissertations--Physics and Astronomy.Paper 11.'.
'Anderson-Evans, Colin David. "Estimating Effective Dose from Phantom Dose Measurements in Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Procedures and Comparison of MOSFET and TLD Detectors in a Small Animal Dosimetry Setting." Thesis. Thesis / Dissertation ETD, 2011. Print. '.
'Lipkin ME, Wang AJ, Toncheva G, Ferrandino MN, Yoshizumi TT, Preminger GM. Determination of patient radiation dose during ureteroscopic treatment of urolithiasis using a validated model. J Urol. 2012;187(3):920-4.'.
'Fujii K, Akahane K, Miyazaki O, et al. Evaluation of organ doses in CT examinations with an infant anthropomorphic phantom. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2011;147(1-2):151-5. '.
'Hranitzky, C., & Stadtmann, H. (January 01, 2011). Patient dosimetry study of a paediatric CT examination. Radiation Measurements, 46, 12, 2035-2038.'.
'Theodorakou, C., Walker, A., Horner, K., Pauwels, R., Bogaerts, R., Jacobs, R., & SEDENTEXCT Project Consortium. (January 01, 2012). Estimation of paediatric organ and effective doses from dental cone beam CT using anthropomorphic phantoms. The British Journal of Radiology, 85, 1010, 153-60.'.
'Govia, K., Connolly, B. L., Thomas, K. E., & Gordon, C. L. (April 01, 2012). Estimates of Effective Dose to Pediatric Patients Undergoing Enteric and Venous Access Procedures.Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, 23, 4, 443-450.'.
'Johnson JN, Hornik CP, Li JS, et al. Response to letters regarding article, "cumulative radiation exposure and cancer risk estimation in children with heart disease". Circulation. 2015;131(16):e419-20.'.
'Davis AT, Safi H, Maddison SM. The reduction of dose in paediatric panoramic radiography: the impact of collimator height and programme selection. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2015;44(2):20140223.'.
'Beeksma B, Truant D, Holloway L, Arumugam S. An assessment of image distortion and CT number accuracy within a wide-bore CT extended field of view. Australas Phys Eng Sci Med. 2015; '.
'Januzis N, Nguyen G, Frush DP, Hoang JK, Lowry C, Yoshizumi TT. Feasibility of using the computed tomography dose indices to estimate radiation dose to partially and fully irradiated brains in pediatric neuroradiology examinations. Phys Med Biol. 2015;60(14):5699-710.'.
'Rehn, Emelie. "Modeling of Scatter Radiation during Interventional X-ray Procedures." Thesis. Linköping University, Sweden, 2015.'.
'Kaasalainen T, Palmu K, Lampinen A, et al. Limiting CT radiation dose in children with craniosynostosis: phantom study using model-based iterative reconstruction. Pediatr Radiol. 2015. '.
'Baskan, O., Erol, C., Ozbek, H., & Paksoy, Y. (2015). Effect of radiation dose reduction on image quality in adult head CT with noise-suppressing reconstruction system with a 256 slice MDCT. Journal Of Applied Clinical Medical Physics, 16(3). doi:10.1120/jacmp.v16i3.5360 '.
'Taddei PJ, Jalbout W, Howell RM, Khater N, Geara FB, Homann K, Newhauser WD.  Analytical model for out-of-field dose in photon craniospinal irradiation.  Phys. Med. Biol.  58, 7463-7479 (2013). '.
'Koweek, Lynne Hurwitz M. SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT) IMAGING USING VARIABLE IMAGE QUALITY FACTORS OR IMAGE CAPTURE SETTINGS IN A SINGLE ACQUISITION. Duke University, assignee. Patent 14/267868. 6 Nov. 2014. '.
'Fisher, R., & Hintenlang, D. (2014). Super-size me: adipose tissue-equivalent additions for anthropomorphic phantoms. Journal Of Applied Clinical Medical Physics, 15(6). doi:10.1120/jacmp.v15i6.5007. '.
'Hidalgo A, Davies J, Horner K, Theodorakou C. Effectiveness of thyroid gland shielding in dental CBCT using a paediatric anthropomorphic phantom. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2015;44(3):20140285. '.
'Kim, Jin-Young, Shin-Wook Kim, Bo-Young Choe, Tae-Suk Suh, Sung-Kwang Park, Sun-Mi Jo, Won-Yong Oh, Jung-Wook Shin, Gyu-Seok Cho, Song-Hee Nam, Jin-Beom Chong, Jung-Ki Kim, and Young-Kyu Lee. "Clinical Assessment of the Jaw-tracking Function in IMRT for a Brain Tumor."Journal of the Korean Physical Society 66.2 (2015): 295-300.'.
'Januzis N, Nguyen G, Hoang JK, Lowry C, Yoshizumi TT. A novel method of estimating effective dose from the point dose method: a case study--parathyroid CT scans. Phys Med Biol. 2015;60(5):1763-73. '.
'Kataria B, Sandborg M, Althén JN. IMPLICATIONS OF PATIENT CENTRING ON ORGAN DOSE IN COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2016;:ncv527. '.
'Werncke T, Von falck C, Luepke M, Stamm G, Wacker FK, Meyer BC. Collimation and Image Quality of C-Arm Computed Tomography: Potential of Radiation Dose Reduction While Maintaining Equal Image Quality. Invest Radiol. 2015;50(8):514-21. '.
'John D. Thompson ; Dev P. Chakraborty ; Katy Szczepura ; Ioannis Vamvakas ; Andrew Tootell, et al. " A phantom-based JAFROC observer study of two CT reconstruction methods: the search for optimisation of lesion detection and effective dose ", Proc. SPIE 9416, Medical Imaging 2015: Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment, 94160B (March 17, 2015); doi:10.1117/12.2081632; '.
'David A. P. Dunkerley ; Michael T. Tomkowiak ; Jordan M. Slagowski ; Bradley P. McCabe ; Tobias Funk, et al. " Monte Carlo simulation of inverse geometry x-ray fluoroscopy using a modified MC-GPU framework ", Proc. SPIE 9412, Medical Imaging 2015: Physics of Medical Imaging, 94120S (March 18, 2015); doi:10.1117/12.2081684; '.
'Greffier, J., F. Macri, A. Larbi, A. Fernandez, E. Khasanova, F. Pereira, C. Mekkaoui, and J.P. Beregi. "Dose Reduction with Iterative Reconstruction: Optimization of CT Protocols in Clinical Practice." ScienceDirect. Elsevier, May 2015. Web. '.
'Rivett C, Dixon M, Matthews L, Rowles N. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE DOSE REDUCTION OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE LEAD PROTECTIVE GLASSES FOR INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY STAFF. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2016;:ncv540. '.
'Mege JP, Wenzhao S, Veres A, Auzac G, Diallo I, Lefkopoulos D. Evaluation of MVCT imaging dose levels during helical IGRT: comparison between ion chamber, TLD, and EBT3 films. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2016;17(1):5774. '.
'Hill KD, Wang C, Einstein AJ, et al. Impact of imaging approach on radiation dose and associated cancer risk in children undergoing cardiac catheterization. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2016; '.
'Atsalaki, M., G. Solomou, A.E. Papadakis, and J. Damilakis. "Optimization of Head Radiographic Examination Protocols in Pediatric Patients." Elsevier, 26 Aug. 2016. Web. '.
'Tan SK, Yeong CH, Ng KH, Abdul aziz YF, Sun Z. Recent Update on Radiation Dose Assessment for the State-of-the-Art Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Protocols. PLOS ONE. 2016;11(8):e0161543. '.
'Zhu, X., W.P. McCullough, P. Mecca, et al. "Dual-energy Compared to Single-energy CT in Pediatric Imaging: A Phantom Study for DECT Clinical Guidance." Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2016. Web. '.
'Tootell, A., M. McEntee, K. Szczepura, and P. Hogg. "Effective Dose and Effective Risk from Post–Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Imaging of the Lumbar Spine." Elsevier, 2016. Web. '.
'Guberina, N., S. Suntharalingam, K. Naßenstein, et al. "Clinical Evaluation of a Dose Monitoring Software Tool Based on Monte Carlo Simulation in Assessment of Eye Lens Doses for Cranial CT Scans." Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2016. Web. '.
'Cheng CS, Jong WL, Ung NM, Wong J. Evaluation of Imaging Dose From Different Image Guided Systems During Head and Neck Radiotherapy: A Phantom Study. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2016; '.
'Park SY, Choi CH, Park JM, Chun M, Han JH, Kim JI. A Patient-Specific Polylactic Acid Bolus Made by a 3D Printer for Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy. PLOS ONE. 2016;11(12):e0168063. '.
'Shin, R., F. Cabrera, G. Nguyen, et al. "Radiation Dosimetry for Ureteroscopy Patients: A Phantom Study Comparing the Standard and Obese Patient Models." Journal of Endourology, 2016. Web. '.
'Masuda, T., Y. Funama, M. Kiguchi, et el. "Radiation Dose Reduction Based on CNR Index with Low-tube Voltage Scan for Pediatric CT Scan: Experimental Study Using Anthropomorphic Phantoms." SpringerPlus, 2016. Web. '.
'Sookpeng, S., and C. Butdee. "Signal-to-noise Ratio and Dose to the Lens of the Eye for Computed Tomography Examination of the Brain Using an Automatic Tube Current Modulation System." Emergency Radiology, 2016. Web. '.
'Guberina, N., U. Lechel, M. Forsting, and A. Ringelstein. "Efficacy of High-pitch CT Protocols for Radiation Dose Reduction." IOP Publishing, 2016. Web. '.
'Pitteloud, M., A. Gamulin, C. Barea, et al. "Radiation Exposure Using the O-arm® Surgical Imaging System." European Spine Journal, 2016. Web. '.
'Thompson, JD, DP Chakraborty, K. Szczepura, et al. "Effect of Reconstruction Methods and X-ray Tube Current on Nodule Detection in an Anthropomorphic Thorax Phantom: A Crossed-modality JAFROC Observer Study." ResearchGate, 2016. Web. '.
'Chung, K., Y. Han, S. H. Ahn, et al. "Commissioning and Validation of a Dedicated Scanning Nozzle at Samsung Proton Therapy Center." Korean Society of Medical Physics, 2016. Web. '.
'Gomez-Cardona, D., J. Hayes, and R. Zhang. "Low Signal Correction Scheme for Low Dose CBCT: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly." Proc. SPIE 10132, Medical Imaging 2017: Physics of Medical Imaging, 101320Z, 2017. Web. '.
'Fukuda, Atsushi, and Pei-Jan Paul Lin. “COVERING THE PATIENT’S ARM SUPPORT IN LEAD REDUCED THE RADIATION DOSE RATE TO THE CARDIOLOGISTS DURING PERCUTANEOUS CORONARY INTERVENTIONS: A PHANTOM STUDY.” 2019, academic.oup.com/rpd/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/rpd/ncz292/5681344. '.
'Otimização de doses em procedimentos de tomografia computadorizada pediátrica'. 2020; Universidade de São Paulo. View

References