Dynamic Thorax Phantom

Model 008A

The CIRS Dynamic Thorax Motion Phantom is a precision instrument for investigating and minimizing the impact of tumor motion inside the lung. It provides known, accurate and repeatable three-dimensional target motion inside a tissue-equivalent phantom. It is designed for comprehensive analysis of image acquisition, planning and dose delivery in image-guided radiation therapy.

The phantom body represents an average human thorax in shape, proportion and composition. A lung equivalent rod containing a spherical target and or various detectors is inserted into the lung equivalent lobe of the phantom. The body is connected to a motion actuator box that induces three-dimensional target motion through linear translation and rotation of the lung equivalent rod. The motion of the rod itself is radiographically invisible due to its matching density with the surrounding material. The target and its motion, given its density difference, can be resolved.

Target and surrogate motion are independently controlled with CIRS Motion Control Software. The graphical user interface provides an unlimited variety of motions while simplifying the operation of the Dynamic Thorax Motion Phantom to an intuitive level.

  • Complex 3D tumor motion within the lung
  • Sub-millimeter accuracy and reproducibility
  • Motion software enables different cycles, amplitudes and waveforms
  • Tissue equivalent from 50 keV to 125 MeV
  • Compatible with TLD, MOSFET, nanoDot TM, Dose Gel, microchamber, PET/CT targets and film
  • Surrogate breathing platform accommodates numerous gating devices

NOTE: This product or an optional accessory of this product requires a CIRS dosimetry cavity code before an order can be placed. Please refer to the Dosimetry Cavity Codes document to identify the CIRS code for the probe you intend to use with this product.

Data Sheet

Dynamic Thorax Phantom: Data Sheet


Dynamic Thorax Phantom: Brochure

Dosimetry Cavity Codes

Cavity Codes for Dosimetry Devices



Motion Control Software

Hu, Jinyan; Lu, Huanping; Liu, Shijie; Gong, Fengying; Wu, Xiuxiu; Liu, Yimin; Shi, Juntian; 'Error Detection using EPID-based 3D In Vivo Dose Verification for Lung Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy'. 2022; View
Starr Wilmot-Howard 'The CIRS Dynamic Thorax Phantom: A Publication Review'. 2022; View
Richter, Anne; Wegener, Sonja; Breuer, Kathrin; Razinskas, Gary; Weick, Stefan; Florian, Exner; Klaus, Bratengeier; Flentje, Michael; Sauer, Otto; Polat, Bülent; 'Comparison of Sliding Window and Field-In-Field Techniques For Tangential Whole Breast Irradiation Using The Halcyon and Synergy Agility Systems'. 2021; Research Square. View

Summary: “To evaluate the imaging and treatment dose a left-sided treatment plan was generated for a dynamic thorax phantom. The phantom was used in static mode. Breast surrogates were attached to simulate a breast treatment.”
 Öllers, Michel C; Swinnen, Ans CC; Verhaegen, Frank 'Acuros® dose verification of ultrasmall lung lesions with EBT‐XD film in a homogeneous and heterogeneous anthropomorphic phantom setup'. Medical Physics. 2021; View

Summary: The 008A was used to compare the localization accuracy in 4D cone-beam CT imaging performed during radiotherapy to the 4D CT images used during simulation and treatment planning. The two imaging methods were found to be significantly equivalent within ±1 mm, making 4D CBCT an attractive localization method for lung SBRT treatments.
Dechambre, David; Vander Veken, Loïc; Delor, Antoine; Sterpin, Edmond; Vanneste, Françoise; Geets, Xavier; 'Feasibility of a TPS-integrated method to incorporate tumor motion in the margin recipe'. Medical Dosimetry. 2021; View
Holla, Raghavendra; Khanna, David Khanna; Narayanan, VK Sathiya; 'Dose delivery accuracy on helical tomotherapy for 4-dimensional tumor motion—a phantom study'. Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy. 2021; View
Baley, Colton; Kirby, Neil; Wagner, Timothy; Papanikolaou, Nikos; Myers, Pamela; Rasmussen, Karl; Stathakis, Sotirios; Saenz, Daniel; 'On the evaluation of mobile target trajectory between four‐dimensional computer tomography and four‐dimensional cone‐beam computer tomography'. Medical Dosimetry. 2021; Elsevier. View
Pandey, Ananta; 'The geometrical and dose accuracy of the CyberKnife system in the treatment of bile duct with the use of metallic stent'. University of Eastern Finland. 2021; epub. View
Okada, Wataru; Doi, Hiroshi; Tanooka, Masao; Sano, Keisuke; Nakamura, Kenji; Sakai, Yusuke; Shibata, Mayuri; Tanaka, Masahiro; 'A first report of tumour-tracking radiotherapy with helical tomotherapy for lung and liver tumours: A double case report'. SAGE Open Medical Case Reports. 2021; View
MAO, Ronghu; ZHANG, You; TIAN, Lingling; GAO, Renqi; REN, Lei; LI, Dingjie; WANG, Jianhua; YIN, Fangfang; GE, Hong; 'A phantom study of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy and sliding window intensity-modulated radiation therapy based on 4D dose distribution'. Chinese Journal of Radiation Oncology. 2021; 272-277. View
Okawa, Kohei; Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Sakae, Takeji; 'Development of a tracking error prediction system for the CyberKnife Synchrony Respiratory Tracking System with use of support vector regression'. Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing. 2021; 10-Jan. Springer. View
Badra, Eugenia Vlaskou; Baumgartl, Michael; Fabiano, Silvia; Jongen, Aurélien; Guckenberger, Matthias; 'Stereotactic radiotherapy for early stage non-small cell lung cancer: current standards and ongoing research'. Translational Lung Cancer Research. 2021; 10 (4): 1930. AME Publications. View

Summary: "End-to-end tests are powerful tools in QA protocols to ensure the reliability of the entire treatment chain through sufficient imaging protocols for the planning CT, image reconstruction, data transfer, treatment planning system performance, motion management, and irradiation of dummy treatment plans on QA phantoms and comparing calculated with measured data."
Tajik, Mahdieh; Akhlaqi, Mohammad Mohsen; Gholami, Somayeh; 'Advances in anthropomorphic thorax phantoms for radiotherapy: a review'. Biomedical Physics & Engineering Express. 2021; IOP Publishing. View
Werner, René; Szkitsak, Juliane; Sentker, Thilo; Madesta, Frederic; Schwarz, Annette; Fernolendt, Susanne; Vornehm, Marc; Gauer, Tobias; Bert, Christoph; Hofmann, Christian; 'Comparison of intelligent 4D CT sequence scanning and conventional spiral 4D CT: a first comprehensive phantom study'. Physics in Medicine & Biology. 2021; 66 (1): 15004. IOP Publishing. View
Paolani, Giulia; Strolin, Silvia; Santoro, Miriam; Della Gala, Giuseppe; Tolento, Giorgio; Guido, Alessandra; Siepe, Giambattista; Morganti, Alessio G; Strigari, Lidia; 'A novel tool for assessing the correlation of internal/external markers during SGRT guided stereotactic ablative radiotherapy treatments'. Physica Medica. 2021; 92: 40-51. Elsevier. View
Sonier, Marcus; Vangenderen, Brandon; Visagie, Dallas; Appeldoorn, Cameron; Chiang, Te‐Chih; Mathew, Lindsay; Reinsberg, Stefan; Rose, Jim; Ramaseshan, Ramani; 'Commissioning a four‐dimensional Computed Tomography Simulator for minimum target size due to motion in the Anterior–Posterior direction: a procedure and treatment planning recommendations'. Radiation Onocology Physics. 2020; View

Summary: The 008A was used to validate a real-time position management system that leverages the motion data from the onboard hardware of Apple iOS devices to provide patients with visual coaching. Benefits include improved reproducibility of breathing, greater patient compliance, and reduced treatment delivery time.
Morton, Natasha; Sykes, Jonathan; Barber, Jeffrey; Hofmann, Christian; Keall, Paul; O’Brien, Ricky; 'Reducing 4D CT imaging artifacts at the source: first experimental results from the respiratory adaptive computed tomography (REACT) system'. Phys Med Bio. 2020; View

Summary: With a new insert, measured and planned dose distributions were very similar, which supports the current view in the field that dose calculations on AIP image sets account sufficiently for tumor motion during treatment. The phantom also performed well despite challenging breathing parameters (large tumor amplitude and slow breathing rate) and the application of a complex treatment technique (VMAT). This phantom could facilitate clinical and end-to-end film-based dosimetric QA for lung SBRT.
Capaldi, Dante PI; Nano, Tomi F; Zhang, Hao; Skinner, Lawrie B; Xing, Lei; 'Evaluation of audiovisual biofeedback smartphone application for respiratory monitoring in radiation oncology'. Medical Physics. 2020; View
Madesta, Frederic; Sentker, Thilo; Gauer, Tobias; Werner, René; 'Self‐contained deep learning‐based boosting of 4D cone‐beam CT reconstruction'. Medical Physics. 2020; View
Takahashi, Wataru; Oshikawa, Shota; Mori, Shinichiro; 'Real-time markerless tumour tracking with patient-specific deep learning using a personalised data generation strategy: proof of concept by phantom study'. 2020; arXiv. View
Werner, René; Sentker, Thilo; Madesta, Frederic; Schwarz, Annette; Vornehm, Marc; Gauer, Tobias; Hofmann, Christian; 'Intelligent 4D CT sequence scanning (i4DCT): First scanner prototype implementation and phantom measurements of automated breathing signal‐guided 4D CT'. Medical Physics. 2020; View
Nano, Tomi F; Capaldi, Dante PI; Yeung, Timothy; Chuang, Cynthia F; Wang, Lei; Descovich, Martina; 'Performance of CyberKnife® tracking using low‐dose CT and kV imaging'. Medical Physics. 2020; View
Kawata, Kohei; Kamomae, Takeshi; Oguchi, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Fumitaka; Okudaira, Kuniyasu; Kawamura, Mariko; Ohtakara, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Naganawa, Shinji; 'Evaluation of newly implemented dose calculation algorithms for multileaf collimator‐based CyberKnife tumor‐tracking radiotherapy'. Medical physics. 2020; 47 (3): 1391-1403. Wiley Online Library. View
Capaldi, Dante PI; Nano, Tomi F; Zhang, Hao; Skinner, Lawrie B; Xing, Lei; 'Evaluation of audiovisual biofeedback smartphone application for respiratory monitoring in radiation oncology'. Medical Physics. 2020; 47 (11): 5496-5504. Wiley Online Library. View
Munoz, C., et al., Evaluation of Positional Accuracy in Moving Tumors Using a CIRS Dynamic Phantom. Poster presented, Cyberknife User’s Meeting January 2007. Tanyi, James, A., et al., Phantom investigation of 3D motion-dependent volume aliasing during CT simulation for radiation therapy planning. Radiation Oncology, 2007, 2:10. Chuang, C., et al., The use of a new dynamic motion phantom for patient specific QA in tracking therapy. 2006 AAPM Abstract ID No. 4639. Wang, Z., et al., Verifying Internal Target Volume using Cone-Beam CT for Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Treatment. 2006 AAPM Abstract ID No. 5263, Poster #: SU-EE-A1-4. Tanyi, James, A., et al., Dosimetric Evaluation of Target Dose in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) of Lung Lesions Using a Dynamic Motion Anthropomorphic Phantom. 2004 AAPM PO-T-143 Poster.
Tanyi, James, A., et al., Phantom Investigation of Three-Dimensional, Motion-Induced Dose Discrepancy During Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Dose Delivery. Poster presented at 2006 annual AAPM meeting, Orlando FL, July 2006. Tanyi, James, A., et al., Phantom Investigation of Three-Dimensional Motion Dependent Volume Aliasing During CT Simulation for Radiation Therapy Planning. Poster presented at 2006 annual AAPM meeting, Orlando FL, July 2006. Varchena, V., et al., A novel Dynamic Thorax phantom for 3D-CRT and IMRT of lung le- sions. Radiotherapy & Oncology at Meeting, Vol. 76, Supplement 2, September 2005.
Dai, Houde; Dong, Lifei; Lv, Bowen; Chen, Yuangui; Song, Shuang; Su, Shijian; 'Feasibility Study of Permanent Magnet-Based Tumor Tracking Technique for Precise Lung Cancer Radiotherapy'. IEEE Trans Instr and Meas. View
Retif, Paul; Djibo Sidikou, Abdourahamane; Letellier, Romain; Verrecchia‐Ramos, Emilie; Quetin, Philippe; 'A 3D‐printed phantom for radiochromic film evaluation of moving lung tumor SBRT without dose convolution'. Medical Physics. View


Model: 008A Modalities: ,