Phantom Patient for Stereotactic End-to-End Verification

Model 038

SRS commissioning and treatment verification

Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) necessitates a high degree of accuracy in target localization and dose delivery. Small errors can result in significant under treatment of portions of the tumor volume and overdose of nearby normal tissues. The CIRS Stereotactic End-to-End Verification Phantom (STEEV) provides a means to check all necessary steps of a treatment planning system — from diagnostic imaging with CT, MR and PET, to treatment plan verification.

Accurate patient simulation

STEEV’s anthropomorphic exterior allows for use of multiple positioning and fixation devices as used in clinical application. Internal details such as cortical and trabecular bone, brain, spinal cord, teeth, sinuses and trachea provide the most realistic clinical simulation to evaluate the challenging effects of complex intra- and extra-cranial anatomies. Geometric and organic target inserts provide means for comprehensive image QA, geometric machine QA and TPS QA for increased confidence in system performance.

Multi-modality Imaging

STEEV accommodates five interchangeable multi-modality inserts. These inserts come with a variety of internal targets and must be filled with MRI or PET compatible liquids. Five external MRI/ CT fiducials enable additional alignment and distortion evaluation along three orthogonal axes.

Dose measurements at isocenter and off isocenter positions

STEEV accommodates a variety of interchangeable tissue equivalent inserts suitable for small field dosimetry including: micro- and pinpoint ion chambers, film, MOSFET, TLD, OSL (nanoDot TM*) and 3D gel. When used in conjunction with the various imaging inserts, STEEV provides the most comprehensive end-to-end testing and QA solution for SRS systems.

  • Perform end-to-end testing for commissioning as directed by AAPM TG-101
  • Verify patient positioning using frame/frameless systems, head and shoulder masks or other positioning fixation devices
  • Verify patient treatment plan in critical regions
  • Perform geometric machine QA; Winston-Lutz isocenter verification tests and localization/repositioning with couch shift
  • Perform IGRT QA procedure for X-ray and onboard kV and MV imagers including CBCT
  • Assess image fusion, image transfer QA, accuracy verification and TPS testing with Multi-modality imaging capabilities (CT, MRI and PET)
  • TPS Deformable Image registration algorithm accuracy QA

NOTE: This product or an optional accessory of this product requires a CIRS dosimetry cavity code before an order can be placed. Please refer to the Dosimetry Cavity Codes document to identify the CIRS code for the probe you intend to use with this product.

Data Sheet

Phantom Patient for Stereotactic End-to-End Verification: Data Sheet


Phantom Patient for Stereotactic End-to-End Verification: Brochure

Dosimetry Cavity Codes

Cavity Codes for Dosimetry Devices


Northway, Cassidy; Lincoln, John David; Little, Brian; Syme, Alasdair; Thomas, Christopher G; 'Patient‐Specific Collision Zones for 4π Trajectory Optimized Radiation Therapy'. Medical physics. 2022; View
Chatzaraki, Vasiliki; Bolsi, Alessandra; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A; Schmidt, Bernhard; Lomax, Antony John; Weber, Damien C; Thali, Michael; Niemann, Tilo; 'Influence of Radiation Dose, Photon Energy, and Reconstruction Kernel on rho/z Analysis in Spectral Computer Tomography: A Phantom Study'. in vivo. 2022; 36 (2): 678-686. International Institute of Anticancer Research. View
Song, Yulin; Zhang, Miao; Voros, Laszlo; Tang, Xiaoli; Saleh, Ziad; Cai, Weixing; Jeong, Jeho; Mueller, Boris; Mychalczak, Borys; 'A Novel Technique to Validate Dosimetry for Single-Isocenter Multiple-Target VMAT Stereotactic Radiosurgery'. International Journal of Medical Physics, Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology. 2021; 10 (2): 59-68. Scientific Research Publishing.
Puvanasunthararajah, Sathyathas; Fontanarosa, Davide; Wille, Marie‐Luise; Camps, Saskia M; 'The application of metal artifact reduction methods on computed tomography scans for radiotherapy applications: A literature review'. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics. 2021; View
Nenoff, Lena; Matter, Michael; Charmillot, Marjolaine; Krier, Serge; Uher, Klara; Weber, Damien Charles; Lomax, Antony John; Albertini, Francesca; 'Experimental validation of daily adaptive proton therapy'. Phys Med Biol. 2021; View

Summary: A comprehensive and clinically applicable workflow for daily adaptive proton therapy is described that employs a custom head and neck phantom patterned off the 731-HN and the 038.
Aland, Trent; Williams, Talia; Spalding, Myles; Kairn, Tanya; Trapp, Jamie; '7. Use of in vivo transit portal images to detect inter-fraction patient geometry changes on an O-ring type linear accelerator for pelvis and head/neck patients.'. Quality Assurance of Complex Radiotherapy Treatments using High-Resolution 2D Dosimeters. 2021; 149. Queensland University of Technology. View
Poppinga, Daniela; Kretschmer, Jana; Brodbek, Leonie; Meyners, Jutta; Poppe, Bjoern; Looe, Hui Khee; 'Evaluation of the RUBY modular QA phantom for planar and non‐coplanar VMAT and stereotactic radiations'. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics. 2020; 21 (10): 69-79. View

Summary: In this comparison of two leading SRS head phantoms, the authors found that the "STEEV phantom with realistic anatomic structures provides more contrast details that could ease the image registration process, especially during manual registration of planar images."
Moon, Se-Young; Hong, Sang-Woo; Seo, Ji-Sook; Kim, Yeong-Beom; Kwak, Wan-Sin; Lee, Seong-Yeong; Kim, Jung-Soo; 'Lens Dose Reduction Methods and Image Quality in Orbital Computed Tomography Scan'. Journal of radiological science and technology. 2020; 43 (5): 343-351. Korean Society of Radiological Science. View

Summary: The Model 38 was used to analyze dose reduction and image quality when using a shielding board and other dose reduction tools to protect sensitive eye lens during orbit CT examinations.
Maxwell, SK; Charles, PH; Cassim, N; Kairn, T; Crowe, SB; 'Assessing the fit of 3D printed bolus from CT, optical scanner and photogrammetry methods'. Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine. 2020; 43 (2): 601-607. Springer International Publishing. View
Alexis Dimitriadis, Yatman Tsang, Russell A.S. Thomas, Antony L.Palmer, David Eaton, Jonathan Lee, Rushil Patel, Ileana Silvestre Patallo, Clare Gouldstone, Julia A.D. Snaith, Karen J.Kirkby, Andrew Nisbet, Catharine H.Clark 'Multi-institutional dosimetric delivery assessment of intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery on different treatment platforms'. Radiotherapy and Oncology. 2020; 147: 153-161. Elsevier. View
M Tynan R Stevens, Eric C Lobb, Kamil M Yenice 'Validation of MLC-based linac radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia'. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2018; 19 (4): 214-221. Wiley Online Library. View
Dorenlot, Antoine. 'Commissionning And First Results Of The New Leksell Gamma Knife: ICON'. 2015. Presentation.
Dimitriadis A, Palmer AL, Thomas RAS, Nisbet A, Clark CH. Adaptation and validation of a commercial head phantom for cranial radiosurgery dosimetry end-to-end audit. Br J Radiol 2017; 90: 20170053. View


Model: 038 Modalities: , ,