Tissue Equivalent Materials


CIRS Tissue Simulation Technology allows users to study the interaction between ionizing radiation and tissue with safety and precision. Our tissue equivalent materials (TEMS) have been validated through independent studies, continuous monitoring and worldwide use for over 35 years. All TEMs produced by CIRS meet International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) Report 44 standards, which require that TEMs match the linear attenuation and stopping power coefficient of their reference tissues to within +/- 1%. (Physical densities may vary by more than 1%, as it is sometimes necessary to adjust the physical density to ensure that the linear attenuation coefficient and electron density meets ICRU Report 44 requirements.)

CIRS Tissue Equivalent Materials are available in sizes ranging from 10 x 10 cm to 30 cm x 30 cm and thicknesses of 0.1 cm through 5 cm. Materials in different shapes and sizes are also available upon request.

CIRS TEM’s are easily machined and can be glued together to create a thicker bolus of material. Other formulations are available upon request.

  • Meets ICRU Report 44 standards for tissue equivalence in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging
  • Applies to photon, electron and proton beams
  • Covers therapeutic and diagnostic energy ranges
  • Tissue types available:
    • Lung (inhale, exhale and medium)
    • Bone (Cortical, trabecular and average)
    • Breast (Adipose, glandular and mixed)
    • Organ soft tissue (Adipose Av. soft tissue, bladder, blood, brain white Mt, brain gray Mt., brain average, muscle, kidney, pancreas, heart, liver, prostate, spleen, instestine)


Data Sheet

Tissue Equivalent Materials: Data Sheet