ATOM® Phantom Family

Model 701-705

The ATOM family consists of six clinically relevant ages including, a newborn, 1-year old, 5-year old, adult male, and adult female.

Each phantom age accounts for key variations in tissue composition due to age or sex and accounts for variations in bone mineral density. This results in a more precise physical model with which to investigate the interaction of radiation with different tissues. It allows for more accurate dose calculations in different age groups.

For over 35 years, CIRS tissue simulation technology has been validated through third-party testing, and continually refined by monitoring manufacturing applications on a global platform. CIRS has developed materials that mimic the linear attenuation curves of real tissue. With target parameters for tissue simulation based on gold standard ICRP 23 and ICRU 48 reports.

The ATOM phantom line has tissue differentiations between cartilage, spinal cord, spinal disks, lung, brain, sinus, average bone, and average soft tissue.

All phantoms are precision sliced into 25 mm thick sections and drilled with an array of holes for dosimeter placement. No coatings are applied to the mating surfaces of the phantom to maintain continuous imaging characteristics. Stacked phantoms are secured with an assembly device and small internal alignment pins between sections; neither of which will interfere with the life-like imaging properties of the phantom.

There are many different phantom configurations available to accommodate your needs and use cases. Limb and breast attachments are also available as optional accessories to measure peripheral and scattered radiation.

  • Phantom models cover a wide range of patient ages
  • Organ specific dosimetry with minimal detectors
  • Superior tissue simulation and lifelike imaging properties
  • Homogeneous bone
  • Accommodates wide variety of detectors
  • Age appropriate references

NOTE: This product or an optional accessory of this product requires a CIRS dosimetry cavity code before an order can be placed. Please refer to the Dosimetry Cavity Codes document to identify the CIRS code for the probe you intend to use with this product.

Artemis I Mission


NASA’s Artemis I mission to the Moon will feature two custom designed female ATOM Phantoms from CIRS. “Helga” and “Zohar” will fly as proxies for female astronauts to help determine risk to radiation sensitive organs, and ensure more inclusive possibilities for the future of human space travel.

Learn more about Helga and Zohar

Helga and Zohar in space

Read the press release

Images sources: The European Space Agency and DLR

ATOM Dosimetry

ATOM Dosimetry Space


ATOM® Phantom Family: Brochure

Dosimetry Cavity Codes

Cavity Codes for Dosimetry Devices


Choi, Yoomi; Kim, Hyoungtaek; Kim, Min Chae; Yu, Hyungjoon; Lee, Hyunseok; Lee, Jeong Tae; Lee, Hanjin; Kim, Young-su; Kim, Han Sung; Lee, Jungil; 'Reference dosimetry for inter-laboratory comparison on retrospective dosimetry techniques in realistic field irradiation experiment using 192Ir'. Nuclear Engineering and Technology. 2022; Elsevier. View
McCollough, Cynthia H; McCollough, Shannon L; Schneider, Justine J; Moen, Taylor R; Weaver, Jayse M; Vrieze, Thomas J; Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; 'Dependence of water-equivalent diameter and size-specific dose estimates on CT tube potential'. Radiology. 2022; 210860. Radiological Society of North America. View
Majer, Marija; Ambrožová, Iva; Davídková, Marie; De Saint‐Hubert, Marijke; Kasabašić, Mladen; Knežević, Željka; Kopeć, Renata; Krzempek, Dawid; Krzempek, Katarzyna; Miljanić, Saveta; 'Out‐of‐field doses in pediatric craniospinal irradiations with 3D‐CRT, VMAT, and scanning proton radiotherapy: A phantom study'. Medical Physics. 2022; View
Santos, Fernanda Stephanie; Aburjaile, Wadia Namen; Mourão, Arnaldo Prata; 'Organ Dose Evaluation of Head Computed Tomography Scans Using a Male Anthropomorphic Phantom'. Innovation. 2022; 3 (1): 13-17. View
Kim, Nalee; Lim, Do Hoon; Cho, Sungkoo; Kim, Sungjin; 'Gentle image-guided radiation therapy protocol for pediatric patients'. Brain Tumor Research and Treatment. 2022; 10 (Suppl): View
Charyyev, Serdar; Chang, Chih-Wei; Harms, Joseph Mark; Oancea, Cristina; Yoon, S Tim; Yang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Tiezhi; Zhou, Jun; Lin, Liyong; 'A novel proton counting detector and method for the validation of tissue and implant material maps for Monte Carlo dose calculation'. Phys Med Biol. 2021; View
Roser, Philipp; Birkhold, Annette; Preuhs, Alexander; Ochs, Philipp; Stepina, Elizaveta; Strobel, Norbert; Kowarschik, Markus; Fahrig, Rebecca; Maier, Andreas; 'XDose: toward online cross-validation of experimental and computational X-ray dose estimation'. Int Journ of Comp Assisted Rad and Surgery. 2021; 16 (1): 10-Jan. View
Saeed, MK; 'Comparison of estimated and calculated fetal radiation dose for a pregnant woman who underwent computed tomography and conventional X-ray examinations based on a phantom study'. Radiol Phys Technol. 2021; 14 (1): 25-33. View
Colnot, Julie; Zefkili, Sofia; Gschwind, Régine; Huet, Christelle; 'Out‐of‐field doses from radiotherapy using photon beams: A comparative study for a pediatric renal treatment'. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2021; 22 (3): 94-106. View
Kuan-Heng, Lin; Chen-Xiong, Hsu; Shan-Ying, Wang; Chiu-Han, Chang; Hui-Ju, Tien; Pei-Wei, Shueng; Tung-Hsin, Wu; 'Volume-based algorithm of lung dose optimization in novel dynamic arc radiotherapy for esophageal cancer'. Scientific Reports. 2021; 11: View
Peltonen, Juha I; Kaasalainen, Touko; Kortesniemi, Mika; 'Metal artifacts in intraoperative O-arm CBCT scans'. BMC Medical Imaging volume. 2021; 21 (2): View
Wochnik, Agnieszka; Stolarczyk, Liliana; Ambrožová, I; Davidkova, Marie; De Saint-Hubert, Marijke; Domański, Szymon; Domingo, Carles; Knežević, Željka; Kopeć, R; Kuć, Michał; 'Out-of-field doses for scanning proton radiotherapy of shallowly located paediatric tumours—a comparison of range shifter and 3D printed compensator'. Phys Med Biol. 2021; 66: View
Waldner, Lovisa; Bernhardsson, Christian; Woda, Clemens; Trompier, Francois; Van Hoey, Olivier; Kulka, Ulrike; Oestreicher, Ursula; Bassinet, Celine; Rääf, C; Discher, Michael; 'The 2019–2020 EURADOS WG10 and RENEB Field Test of Retrospective Dosimetry Methods in a Small-Scale Incident Involving Ionizing Radiation'. Radiation Research. 2021; View
Lee, Kuk Sun; Nam, Ok Hyung; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Choi, Sung Chul; Choi, Yong-Suk; Hwang, Eui-Hwan; 'Radiation dosimetry analyses of radiographic imaging systems used for orthodontic treatment: comparison among child, adolescent, and adult patients'. Oral Radiologi. 2021; 37: 245-250. View
Saeed, MK; Almalki, Y; 'Assessment of computed tomography radiation doses for paediatric head and chest examinations using paediatric phantoms of three different ages'. Radiography. 2021; 27 (2): 332-339. View
Kuttner, Hannes; Benninger, Emanuel; Fretz, Valentin; Meier, Christoph; 'The impact of the fluoroscopic view on radiation exposure in pelvic surgery: organ involvement, effective dose and the misleading concept of only measuring fluoroscopy time or the dose area product'. European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology. 2021; 7-Jan. Springer. View
CHEN, Xin; ZHANG, Weiyuan; ZHUO, Weihai; 'Estimation of patient doses in paediatric cardiovascular interventional radiology under specific exposure conditions'. Chinese Journal of Radiological Medicine and Protection. 2021; 199-204. View
Wang, Bow; Ting, Chien-Yi; Lai, Cheng-Shih; Tsai, Yi-Shan; 'Bismuth Pelvic X-Ray Shielding Reduces Radiation Dose Exposure in Pediatric Radiography'. BioMed Research International. 2021; 2021: Hindawi. View
Jadick, Giavanna; Abadi, Ehsan; Harrawood, Brian; Sharma, Shobhit; Segars, W Paul; Samei, Ehsan; 'A scanner-specific framework for simulating CT images with tube current modulation'. Physics in Medicine & Biology. 2021; 66 (18): 185010. IOP Publishing. View
Muñoz-Moral, E; Rodríguez-Laguna, A; Jiménez-Acosta, JA; 'Implementation of total body irradiation using VMAT'. AIP Conf Proceedings. 2021; View
Garrett, Lachlan; Hardcastle, Nicholas; Yeo, Adam; Lonski, Peta; Franich, Rick; Kron, Tomas; 'Out-of-field dose in stereotactic radiotherapy for paediatric patients'. Physcs and Imaging in Radiation Oncology. 2021; View
Bryce-Atkinson, Abigail; De Jong, Rianne; Marchant, Tom; Whitfield, Gillian; Aznar, Marianne C; Bel, Arjan; van Herk, Marcel; 'Low dose cone beam CT for paediatric image-guided radiotherapy: image quality and practical recommendations'. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 2021; View
Van Nortwick, Sara S; Leonard, Dana A; Finlay, Andrea K; Chou, Loretta; Valone, Lindsey C; 'Methods for Reducing Intraoperative Breast Radiation Exposure of Orthopaedic Surgeons'. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2021; View
Goren, AD; 'Dosimetry Comparison of CBCT versus Digital 2D Orthodontic Imaging in a Pediatric Orthodontic Patient'. J Den Helath and Oral Res. 2021; View
Masuda, Takanori; Funama, Yoshinori; Nakaura, Takeshi; Sato, Tomoyasu; Tahara, Masahiro; Takei, Yasutaka; Yamashita, Yukari; Oku, Takayuki; Masuda, Shouko; Kiguchi, Masao; 'Use of Vacuum Mattresses can Reduce The Absorbed Dose During Pediatric Ct'. Rad Prot Dosimetry. 2021; View
Fujii, Keisuke; Nomura, Keiichi; Muramatsu, Yoshihisa; Ota, Hiroyuki; 'Patient-Specific Organ dose Evaluation Based on Monte Carlo Simulation and dose Metrics in Paediatric Chest–Abdomen–Pelvis CT Examinations'. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 2021; View
Principi, Sara; Lu, Yonggang; Liu, Yu; Wang, Adam; Maslowski, Alex; Wareing, Todd; Van Heteren, John; Schmidt, Taly Gilat; 'Validation of a deterministic linear Boltzmann transport equation solver for rapid CT dose computation using physical dose measurements in pediatric phantoms'. Medical Physics. 2021; View
Willer, Konstantin; Fingerle, Alexander A; Noichl, Wolfgang; De Marco, Fabio; Frank, Manuela; Urban, Theresa; Schick, Rafael; Gustschin, Alex; Gleich, Bernhard; Herzen, Julia; 'X-ray dark-field chest imaging for detection and quantification of emphysema in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a diagnostic accuracy study'. The Lancet Digital Health. 2021; 3 (11): e733-e744. Elsevier. View

Summary: During this study of the diagnositic accuracy of using x-ray darkfield chest imaging in emphysema patients, effective radiaiton dose was measured using the adult male ATOM phantoms.
Fukuda, Atsushi; Lin, Pei‐Jan P; Ichikawa, Nao; Matsubara, Kosuke; 'Determination of geometric information and radiation field overlaps on the skin in percutaneous coronary interventions with computer‐aided design‐based X‐ray beam modeling'. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics. 2021; Wiley Online Library. View
Charyyev, Serdar; Chang, Chih-Wei; Harms, Joseph; Oancea, Cristina; Yoon, Tim; Yang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Tiezhi; Zhou, Jun; Leng, Shuai; Lin, Liyong; 'Accurate characterization of metal implants and human materials using novel proton counting detector for Monte Carlo dose calculation in proton therapy'. Medical Imaging 2021: Physics of Medical Imaging. 2021; 11595: 115950B. International Society for Optics and Photonics. View
Singh, T; Muscroft, N; Collier, N; England, A; 'A comparison of effective dose and risk for different collimation options used in AP shoulder radiography'. Radiography. 2021; Elsevier. View
Santos, Fernanda S; Mourao, Arnaldo P; 'Comparative study of procedures to reduce organ dose in head CT scans'. 2021; View
Saikkonen, A; Ojala, J; Keyrilainen, J; 'Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm Calculation in Total Body Irradiation: A Comparison with Monte Carlo Calculation and Dosimetry'. Journal of Cancer Science and Clinical Therapeutics. 2021; 5: 532-547. View
Dillon, Jessica; JOHNSON, B; BROOME, A; MOL, A; PLATIN, E; 'A Comparison of Contemporary Portable X-Ray Systems'. 2020; University of North Carolina. View
Ting, Stephanie; Attaia, Diana; Johnson, K Brandon; Kossa, Samer Shoukry; Friedland, Bernard; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Masoud, Mohamed I; 'Can modifying shielding, field of view, and exposure settings make the effective dose of a cone-beam computed tomography comparable to traditional radiographs used for orthodontic diagnosis?'. The Angle Orthodontist. 2020; 90 (5): 655-664. Edward H. Angle Society of Orthodontists. View
Sasak, Krzysztof; Milcewicz-Mika, Izabela; Pyszka, Ewelina; Gałeczka, Michał; Fiszer, Roland; Staniszewska, Maria Anna; 'Comparison of X-ray Doses for Child and Adult Patients Undergoing ASD Procedure'. Journal of Integrative Cardiology Open Access. 2020; View
Somasundaram, Elanchezhian; Brady, Samuel L; Strauss, Keith J; 'Achievable dose reductions with gonadal shielding for children and adults during abdominal/pelvic radiographic examinations: A Monte Carlo simulation'. Med Phys. 2020; View
Fukuda, Atsushi; Lin, Pei-Jan Paul; 'Covering the patient’s arm support in lead reduced the radiation dose rate to the cardiologists during percutaneous coronary interventions: a phantom study'. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 2020; View
Furuta, Hiroshige; Tsujimura, Norio; Nishide, Akemi; Kudo, Shin’ichi; Saigusa, Shin; 'Conversion factor from dosemeter reading to air kerma for nuclear worker using anthropomorphic phantom for further conversion from air kerma to organ-absorbed dose'. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 2020; 189 (3): 371-383. Oxford University Press. View
Inkinen, SI; Juntunen, MAK; Kotiaho, A; Nieminen, MT; 'Calibration method and photon flux influences tiled flat-panel photon counting detector image uniformity in computed tomography'. Journal of Instrumentation. 2020; IOP Publishing. View
Joo, Young-Cheol; Kim, Sheung-Hyuk; 'Effects of Breast Dose on Plain Abdominal Position'. Journal or Radiological Science and Technology. 2020; 43 (3): 155-159. View
Kim, Eun-Kyung; 'Dose estimation of cone-beam computed tomography in children using personal computer-based Monte Carlo software'. Korea Science. 2020; View
Sarosiek, Christina; DeJongh, Ethan A; Coutrakon, George; DeJongh, Don F; Duffin, Kirk L; Karonis, Nicholas T; Ordoñez, Caesar E; Pankuch, Mark; Rykalin, Victor; Winans, John R; 'Analysis of characteristics of images acquired with a prototype clinical proton radiography system.'. Medical Physics. 2020; 41 (11): 5514-5522. Epub. View
Kron, Tomas; Lonski, Peta; Yukihara, Eduardo G; 'Thermoluminescence Dosimetry (TLD) In Medicine: Five ‘W’s And One How'. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 2020; View
Roser, Philipp; Birkhold, Annette; Zhong, Xia; Stepina, Elizaveta; Kowarschik, Markus; Fahrig, Rebecca; Maier, Andreas; 'Effects of tissue material properties on x-ray image, scatter and patient dose a monte carlo simulation'. arXiv preprint arXiv:2108.02688. 2020; View
Ali, Raed MKM; England, Andrew; Tootell, Andrew K; Hogg, Peter; 'Radiation dose from digital breast tomosynthesis screening–A comparison with full field digital mammography'. J Med Imag and Rad Sciences. 2020; View
Dalah, Entesar Zawam; Araz, Samia; Bilal, Ghaida Tarig; Noorajan, Zarmeena; El Mehdi, Hussein; Zgallai, Walid; 'Evaluating and comparing a pediatric cervical-supine image quality obtained using different digital radiography machines: phantom study'. 2020 Advances in Science and Engineering Technology International Conferences (ASET). 2020; IEEE. View
Foster, Robert Evans; Cooper, Lloyd Guyton Bowers; Livingstpn, William Thomas; D PHILLIPS, Foster; 'Radiation shielding system'. 2020; US 2020/0352528 A1. View
Guerra, Vivian Heidorne; 'Otimização de doses em procedimentos de tomografia computadorizada pediátrica'. 2020; Instituto de Física. View
Matter, M; Nenoff, Lena; Marc, L; Weber, Damien C; Lomax, Antony J; Albertini, Francesca; 'Update on yesterday’s dose—use of delivery log-files for daily adaptive proton therapy (DAPT)'. Physics in Medicine & Biology. 2020; 65 (19): 195011. IOP Publishing. View
Baptista, Mariana; Di Maria, Salvatore; Vieira, Sandra; Pereira, Joana; Pereira, Miguel; Vaz, Pedro; 'Organ dose measurements using an adult anthropomorphic phantom and risk estimation of cancer incidence from CBCT exposures'. Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 2020; 171: 108715. Elsevier. View
Somasundaram, Elanchezhian; Brady, Samuel L; Strauss, Keith J; 'Achievable dose reductions with gonadal shielding for children and adults during abdominal/pelvic radiographic examinations: a Monte Carlo simulation'. Medical Physics. 2020; 47 (11): 5514-5522. View
Dubus, François; Talbot, Antoine; Maurice, Jean-Baptiste; Devos, Laura; Reyns, Nicolas; Vermandel, Maximilien; 'Evaluation and validation of the convolution algorithm for Leksell Gamma knife radiosurgery'. Physics in Medicine & Biology. 2020; 65 (15): 155012. IOP Publishing. View
Kirkwood, Melissa L; Klein, Andrea; Guild, Jeffrey; Arbique, Gary; Xi, Yin; Tsai, Shirling; Ramanan, Bala; Timaran, Carlos; 'Novel modification to leaded eyewear results in significant operator eye radiation dose reduction'. Journal of vascular surgery. 2020; 72 (6): 2139-2144. Elsevier. View
Zoe Brady, Heather Scoullar, Ben Grinsted, Kyle Ewert, Helen Kavnoudias, Alexander Jarema, James Crocker, Rob Wills, Gillian Houston, Meng Law, Dinesh Varma 'Technique, radiation safety and image quality for chest X-ray imaging through glass and in mobile settings during the COVID-19 pandemic'. Phys Eng Sci Med. 2020; 43 (3): 765-779. View
Song, Ok kyu; Chung, Yong Eun, et al. 'Metal implants influence CT scan parameters leading to increased local radiation exposure: A proposal for correction techniques'. PLOS One. 2019; epub. View
Ok, Song; Chung, YE; Seo, N; Baek, SE; 'Metal implants influence CT scan parameters leading to increased local radiation exposure: A proposal for correction techniques'. PLOS One. 2019; View
Ali, RMKM; England, A; McEntee, MF; Mercer, CE; Tootell, A; Hogg, P; 'Effective lifetime radiation risk for a number of national mammography screening programmes'. Radiography. 2018; 24 (3): 240-246. WB Saunders. View
Kevin D Hill, Chu Wang, Andrew J Einstein, Natalie Januzis, Giao Nguyen, Jennifer S Li, Gregory A Fleming, Terry K Yoshizumi 'Impact of imaging approach on radiation dose and associated cancer risk in children undergoing cardiac catheterization'. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2017; 89 (5): Apr. Wiley Online Library. View
Salas Ramirez, Maikol; 'Methods to Improve Bone Marrow Dosimetry in Molecular Radiotherapy'. Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg. View
Jaffe TA, Yoshizumi TT, Toncheva G, et al. Radiation Dose for Body CT Protocols: Variability of Scanners at One Institution. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2009; 193(4):1141-1147. View
Fehrmann, ML; Schegerer, A; Werncke, T; Schlattl, H; 'Comparison of Experimental and Numerical Methods of Patient dose Estimations in CT Using Anthropomorphic Models'. Journ Int Cardiology Open Access. View
Jaffe TA, Neville AM, Anderson-Evans C, et al. Early First Trimester Fetal Dose Estimation Method in a Multivendor Study of 16- and 64-MDCT Scanners and Low-Dose Imaging Protocols. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2009; 193(4):1019-1024.  View
D. Zhang, X. Li, Y. Gao, X. G. Xu, and B. Liu, “A method to acquire CT organ dose map using OSL dosimeters and ATOM anthropomorphic phantoms,” American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), 24-Jul-2013. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 13-Jan-2021] View
Becker SJ, Elliston C, Dewyngaert K, Jozsef G, et al. Breast radiotherapy in the prone position primarily reduces the maximum out-of-field measured dose to the ipsilateral lung. Medical Physics. 2012; 39 (5): 2417-23. View
Zhu X, Cahill A M, Felice M, Johnson L, Sarmiento M. Developing Low-Dose C-Arm Ct Imaging for Temporomandibular Joint (tmj) Disorder in Interventional Radiology. Pediatric Radiology. 2010; 41.4:476-482. View
Howell RM, Scarboro SB, Kry S, Yaldo DZ. Accuracy of out-of-field dose calculations by a commercial treatment planning system. Physics in Medicine and Biology. 2010; 55(23):6999-7008. View
Howell RM, Scarboro SB, Taddei PJ, et al. Methodology for determining doses to in-field, out-of-field and partially in-field organs for late effects studies in photon radiotherapy. Physics in Medicine and Biology. 2010; 55(23):7009-7023. View
Thornton RH, Dauer LT, Altamirano JP, et al. Comparing strategies for operator eye protection in the interventional radiology suite. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. 2010; 21(11):1703-1707.  View
Miksys N, Gordon CL, Thomas K, Connolly BL. Estimating Effective Dose to Pediatric Patients Undergoing Interventional Radiology Procedures Using Anthropomorphic Phantoms and MOSFET Dosimeters. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2010; 194(5):1315-1322. View
Scarboro SB, Stovall M, White A, et al. Effect of organ size and position on out-of-field dose distributions during radiation therapy. Physics in Medicine and Biology. 2010; 55(23):7025-7036.  View
Bastos M d'Almeida, Lee EY, Strauss KJ, et al. Motion Artifact on High-Resolution CT Images of Pediatric Patients: Comparison of Volumetric and Axial CT Methods. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2009; 193(5):1414-1418.  View
McDermott A, White RA, Mc-Nitt-Gray M, Angel E, Cody D. Pediatric organ dose measurements in axial and helical multislice CT. Medical Physics. 2009; 36(5).  View
Mazonakis M, Zacharopoulou F, Varveris H, Damilakis J. Peripheral dose measurements for 6 and 18 MV photon beams on a linear accelerator with multileaf collimator. Medical Physics. 2008; 35(10):4396-4403.  View
Papadakis AE, Perisinakis K, Damilakis J. Automatic exposure control in pediatric and adult multidetector CT examinations: a phantom study on dose reduction and image quality. Medical Physics. 2008; 35(10):4567-4576. View
Coursey C, Frush DP, Yoshizumi T, et al. Pediatric Chest MDCT Using Tube Current Modulation: Effect on Radiation Dose with Breast Shielding. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2008; 190(1):W54-61.  View
Hollingsworth CL, Yoshizumi TT, Frush DP, et al. Pediatric Cardiac-Gated CT Angiography: Assessment of Radiation Dose. American Journal of Roentgenology.2007; 189(1):12-18. View
Brenner DJ, McCollough CH, Orton CG. It is time to retire the computed tomography dose index (CTDI) for CT quality assurance and dose optimization. Medical Physics. 2006; 33(5). View
Damilakis J, Stratakis J, Raissaki M, et al. Normalized dose data for upper gastrointestinal tract contrast studies performed to infants. Medical Physics. 2006; 33(4). View
Hurwitz LM, Yoshizumi TT, Reiman RE, Paulson EK et al. Radiation Dose to the Female Breast from 16-MDCT Body Protocols. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2006; 186(6):1718-22. View
Jaffe TA, Gaca AM, Delaney S, Yoshizumi TT, et al. Radiation doses from small-bowel follow-through and abdominopelvic MDCT in Crohn's disease. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2007; 189 (5): 1015-22.  View
Ranade M, Lynch B, Li J, Dempsey J. TH-E-224A-04: IMRT Film QA in a Heterogeneous Anthropomorphic Phantom. Medical Physics. 2006; 33(6).  View
Hood C, Kron T, Hamilton C, et al. Correlation of 3D-planned and measured dosimetry of photon and electron craniospinal radiation in a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom. Radiotherapy and Oncology. 2005; 77(1):111-116. View
Kudchadker RJ, Chang EL, Bryan F, Maor MH, Famiglietti R. An evaluation of radiation exposure from portal films taken during definitive course of pediatric radiotherapy. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics. 2004; 59(4):1229-1235. View
Fricke BL, Donnelly LF, Frush DP, et al. In-Plane Bismuth Breast Shields for Pediatric CT: Effects on Radiation Dose and Image Quality Using Experimental and Clinical Data. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2003; 180(2):407-411.  View
Varchena V. Pediatric phantoms. Pediatric Radiology. 2002; 32(4):280-284. View
Dhabaan A, Schreibmann E, Siddiqi A, et al. Six degrees of freedom CBCT-based positioning for intracranial targets treated with frameless stereotactic radiosurgery. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2012;13(6):3916.
Emigh B, Gordon CL, Connolly BL, Falkiner M, Thomas KE. Effective dose estimation for pediatric upper gastrointestinal examinations using an anthropomorphic phantom set and metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) technology. Pediatr Radiol. 2013. View
Martínez-rovira I, Sempau J, Prezado Y. Monte Carlo-based dose calculation engine for minibeam radiation therapy. Phys Med. 2013. View
Tootell AK, Szczepura KR, Hogg P. Optimising the number of thermoluminescent dosimeters required for the measurement of effective dose for computed tomography attenuation correction data in SPECT/CT myocardial perfusion imaging. Radiography. 2013;19(1):42-47.  View
Zhang R, Howell RM, Giebeler A, Taddei PJ, Mahajan A, Newhauser WD. Comparison of risk of radiogenic second cancer following photon and proton craniospinal irradiation for a pediatric medulloblastoma patient. Phys Med Biol. 2013;58(4):807-23.  View
Solomon JB, Li X, Samei E. Relating noise to image quality indicators in CT examinations with tube current modulation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013;200(3):592-600. View
Huang JY, Followill DS, Wang XA, Kry SF. Accuracy and sources of error of out-of field dose calculations by a commercial treatment planning system for intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatments. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2013;14(2):4139.  View
Chan S, Ho Y, Tyan Y, Tsai H. Organ dose and scattering dose for CT coronary angiography and calcium scoring using automatic tube current modulation. Radiation Measurements. 2013.  View
Wang AJ, Goldsmith ZG, Wang C, et al. Obesity triples the radiation dose of stone protocol computerized tomography. J Urol. 2013;189(6):2142-6.  View
Johnston JH, Podberesky DJ, Yoshizumi TT, et al. Comparison of radiation dose estimates, image noise, and scan duration in pediatric body imaging for volumetric and helical modes on 320-detector CT and helical mode on 64-detector CT. Pediatr Radiol. 2013. View
Szczykutowicz TP, Mistretta CA. Design of a digital beam attenuation system for computed tomography. Part II. Performance study and initial results. Med Phys. 2013;40(2):021906.
Lee YW, Yang CC, Mok GS, Wu TH. Infant cardiac CT angiography with 64-slice and 256-slice CT: comparison of radiation dose and image quality using a pediatric phantom. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(11):e49609. View
Astroza G, Neisius A, Wang AJ, et al. Radiation Exposure in the follow-up of patients with urolithiasis comparing Digital Tomosynthesis, Non-Contrast CT, Standard KUB and IVP. J Endourol. 2013. View
Neisius A, Wang AJ, Wang C, et al. Radiation Exposure in Urology - A Genitourinary Catalogue for diagnostic imaging. J Urol. 2013. View
Thapa, Bishnu Bahadur, "DEVELOPMENT OF A PATIENT SPECIFIC IMAGE PLANNING SYSTEM FOR RADIATION THERAPY" (2013).Theses and Dissertations--Physics and Astronomy.Paper 11. View
Anderson-Evans, Colin David. "Estimating Effective Dose from Phantom Dose Measurements in Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Procedures and Comparison of MOSFET and TLD Detectors in a Small Animal Dosimetry Setting." Thesis. Thesis / Dissertation ETD, 2011. Print.  View
Lipkin ME, Wang AJ, Toncheva G, Ferrandino MN, Yoshizumi TT, Preminger GM. Determination of patient radiation dose during ureteroscopic treatment of urolithiasis using a validated model. J Urol. 2012;187(3):920-4. View
Fujii K, Akahane K, Miyazaki O, et al. Evaluation of organ doses in CT examinations with an infant anthropomorphic phantom. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2011;147(1-2):151-5.  View
Hranitzky, C., & Stadtmann, H. (January 01, 2011). Patient dosimetry study of a paediatric CT examination. Radiation Measurements, 46, 12, 2035-2038. View
Theodorakou, C., Walker, A., Horner, K., Pauwels, R., Bogaerts, R., Jacobs, R., & SEDENTEXCT Project Consortium. (January 01, 2012). Estimation of paediatric organ and effective doses from dental cone beam CT using anthropomorphic phantoms. The British Journal of Radiology, 85, 1010, 153-60. View
Govia, K., Connolly, B. L., Thomas, K. E., & Gordon, C. L. (April 01, 2012). Estimates of Effective Dose to Pediatric Patients Undergoing Enteric and Venous Access Procedures.Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, 23, 4, 443-450. View
Johnson JN, Hornik CP, Li JS, et al. Response to letters regarding article, "cumulative radiation exposure and cancer risk estimation in children with heart disease". Circulation. 2015;131(16):e419-20.
Davis AT, Safi H, Maddison SM. The reduction of dose in paediatric panoramic radiography: the impact of collimator height and programme selection. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2015;44(2):20140223. View
Beeksma B, Truant D, Holloway L, Arumugam S. An assessment of image distortion and CT number accuracy within a wide-bore CT extended field of view. Australas Phys Eng Sci Med. 2015;  View
Januzis N, Nguyen G, Frush DP, Hoang JK, Lowry C, Yoshizumi TT. Feasibility of using the computed tomography dose indices to estimate radiation dose to partially and fully irradiated brains in pediatric neuroradiology examinations. Phys Med Biol. 2015;60(14):5699-710. View
Rehn, Emelie. "Modeling of Scatter Radiation during Interventional X-ray Procedures." Thesis. Linköping University, Sweden, 2015. View
Kaasalainen T, Palmu K, Lampinen A, et al. Limiting CT radiation dose in children with craniosynostosis: phantom study using model-based iterative reconstruction. Pediatr Radiol. 2015.  View
Baskan, O., Erol, C., Ozbek, H., & Paksoy, Y. (2015). Effect of radiation dose reduction on image quality in adult head CT with noise-suppressing reconstruction system with a 256 slice MDCT. Journal Of Applied Clinical Medical Physics, 16(3). doi:10.1120/jacmp.v16i3.5360  View
Taddei PJ, Jalbout W, Howell RM, Khater N, Geara FB, Homann K, Newhauser WD.  Analytical model for out-of-field dose in photon craniospinal irradiation.  Phys. Med. Biol.  58, 7463-7479 (2013).  View
Fisher, R., & Hintenlang, D. (2014). Super-size me: adipose tissue-equivalent additions for anthropomorphic phantoms. Journal Of Applied Clinical Medical Physics, 15(6). doi:10.1120/jacmp.v15i6.5007.  View
Hidalgo A, Davies J, Horner K, Theodorakou C. Effectiveness of thyroid gland shielding in dental CBCT using a paediatric anthropomorphic phantom. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2015;44(3):20140285.  View
Kim, Jin-Young, Shin-Wook Kim, Bo-Young Choe, Tae-Suk Suh, Sung-Kwang Park, Sun-Mi Jo, Won-Yong Oh, Jung-Wook Shin, Gyu-Seok Cho, Song-Hee Nam, Jin-Beom Chong, Jung-Ki Kim, and Young-Kyu Lee. "Clinical Assessment of the Jaw-tracking Function in IMRT for a Brain Tumor."Journal of the Korean Physical Society 66.2 (2015): 295-300. View
Januzis N, Nguyen G, Hoang JK, Lowry C, Yoshizumi TT. A novel method of estimating effective dose from the point dose method: a case study--parathyroid CT scans. Phys Med Biol. 2015;60(5):1763-73.  View
Kataria B, Sandborg M, Althén JN. IMPLICATIONS OF PATIENT CENTRING ON ORGAN DOSE IN COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2016;:ncv527.  View
Werncke T, Von falck C, Luepke M, Stamm G, Wacker FK, Meyer BC. Collimation and Image Quality of C-Arm Computed Tomography: Potential of Radiation Dose Reduction While Maintaining Equal Image Quality. Invest Radiol. 2015;50(8):514-21.  View
John D. Thompson ; Dev P. Chakraborty ; Katy Szczepura ; Ioannis Vamvakas ; Andrew Tootell, et al. " A phantom-based JAFROC observer study of two CT reconstruction methods: the search for optimisation of lesion detection and effective dose ", Proc. SPIE 9416, Medical Imaging 2015: Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment, 94160B (March 17, 2015); doi:10.1117/12.2081632;  View
David A. P. Dunkerley ; Michael T. Tomkowiak ; Jordan M. Slagowski ; Bradley P. McCabe ; Tobias Funk, et al. " Monte Carlo simulation of inverse geometry x-ray fluoroscopy using a modified MC-GPU framework ", Proc. SPIE 9412, Medical Imaging 2015: Physics of Medical Imaging, 94120S (March 18, 2015); doi:10.1117/12.2081684;  View
Greffier, J., F. Macri, A. Larbi, A. Fernandez, E. Khasanova, F. Pereira, C. Mekkaoui, and J.P. Beregi. "Dose Reduction with Iterative Reconstruction: Optimization of CT Protocols in Clinical Practice." ScienceDirect. Elsevier, May 2015. Web.  View
Mege JP, Wenzhao S, Veres A, Auzac G, Diallo I, Lefkopoulos D. Evaluation of MVCT imaging dose levels during helical IGRT: comparison between ion chamber, TLD, and EBT3 films. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2016;17(1):5774.  View
Hill KD, Wang C, Einstein AJ, et al. Impact of imaging approach on radiation dose and associated cancer risk in children undergoing cardiac catheterization. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2016;  View
Atsalaki, M., G. Solomou, A.E. Papadakis, and J. Damilakis. "Optimization of Head Radiographic Examination Protocols in Pediatric Patients." Elsevier, 26 Aug. 2016. Web.  View
Tan SK, Yeong CH, Ng KH, Abdul aziz YF, Sun Z. Recent Update on Radiation Dose Assessment for the State-of-the-Art Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Protocols. PLOS ONE. 2016;11(8):e0161543.  View
Zhu, X., W.P. McCullough, P. Mecca, et al. "Dual-energy Compared to Single-energy CT in Pediatric Imaging: A Phantom Study for DECT Clinical Guidance." Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2016. Web.  View
Tootell, A., M. McEntee, K. Szczepura, and P. Hogg. "Effective Dose and Effective Risk from Post–Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Imaging of the Lumbar Spine." Elsevier, 2016. Web.  View
Guberina, N., S. Suntharalingam, K. Naßenstein, et al. "Clinical Evaluation of a Dose Monitoring Software Tool Based on Monte Carlo Simulation in Assessment of Eye Lens Doses for Cranial CT Scans." Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2016. Web.  View
Cheng CS, Jong WL, Ung NM, Wong J. Evaluation of Imaging Dose From Different Image Guided Systems During Head and Neck Radiotherapy: A Phantom Study. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2016;  View
Park SY, Choi CH, Park JM, Chun M, Han JH, Kim JI. A Patient-Specific Polylactic Acid Bolus Made by a 3D Printer for Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy. PLOS ONE. 2016;11(12):e0168063.  View
Shin, R., F. Cabrera, G. Nguyen, et al. "Radiation Dosimetry for Ureteroscopy Patients: A Phantom Study Comparing the Standard and Obese Patient Models." Journal of Endourology, 2016. Web.  View
Masuda, T., Y. Funama, M. Kiguchi, et el. "Radiation Dose Reduction Based on CNR Index with Low-tube Voltage Scan for Pediatric CT Scan: Experimental Study Using Anthropomorphic Phantoms." SpringerPlus, 2016. Web.  View
Sookpeng, S., and C. Butdee. "Signal-to-noise Ratio and Dose to the Lens of the Eye for Computed Tomography Examination of the Brain Using an Automatic Tube Current Modulation System." Emergency Radiology, 2016. Web.  View
Guberina, N., U. Lechel, M. Forsting, and A. Ringelstein. "Efficacy of High-pitch CT Protocols for Radiation Dose Reduction." IOP Publishing, 2016. Web.  View
Pitteloud, M., A. Gamulin, C. Barea, et al. "Radiation Exposure Using the O-arm® Surgical Imaging System." European Spine Journal, 2016. Web.  View
Thompson, JD, DP Chakraborty, K. Szczepura, et al. "Effect of Reconstruction Methods and X-ray Tube Current on Nodule Detection in an Anthropomorphic Thorax Phantom: A Crossed-modality JAFROC Observer Study." ResearchGate, 2016. Web.  View
Chung, K., Y. Han, S. H. Ahn, et al. "Commissioning and Validation of a Dedicated Scanning Nozzle at Samsung Proton Therapy Center." Korean Society of Medical Physics, 2016. Web.  View
Gomez-Cardona, D., J. Hayes, and R. Zhang. "Low Signal Correction Scheme for Low Dose CBCT: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly." Proc. SPIE 10132, Medical Imaging 2017: Physics of Medical Imaging, 101320Z, 2017. Web.  View
Almén, A; Andersson, M; O’Connor, U; Abdelrahman, M; Camp, A; García, V; Duch, MA; Ginjaume, M; Vanhavere, F; 'Personal Dosimetry Using Monte-Carlo Simulations For Occupational Dose Monitoring In Interventional Radiology: The Results Of A Proof Of Concept In A Clinical Setting'. View
Dalah, Entesar Zawam; Araz, Samia; Bilal, Ghaida Tarig; Noorajan, Zarmeena; El Mehdi, Hussein; Zgallai, Walid; 'Evaluating and comparing a pediatric cervical-supine image quality obtained using different digital radiography machines: phantom study'. View
Tönge, Mehmet; İpek, Veyselkarani; Acar Demir, Hılal; 'Dosimetric phantom consistency of TMR-10 protocol in homogeneous and inhomogeneous regions in Gamma Knife radiosurgery planning'. The Medical Journal Of Haydarpaşa Numune Training and Research Hospital. 63 (3): 0-0. View